含有〈食谱〉标签的文章(5)

小白

【2016-05-06】

@小白:因为旧石器时代人类寿命之低,远远达不到食谱(慢性病)导致基因选择的程度。

@whigzhou: 1)旧石器时代人的寿命不是很短,许多狩猎采集社会的平均寿命可达45岁,明显比传统农业社会长

@whigzhou: 2)是否对慢性病构成选择压力,不能只看平均寿命,而要看活到较高年龄的人是否足够多,“平均寿命只有40岁”绝不意味着“活过40岁的人很少”,要考虑极高的婴儿和儿童死亡率,比如100个人,50个全部8岁前死掉,平均寿命4岁,另外50个平均寿命76岁,那么这100人的平均寿命是40岁。

@whigzhou: 3)所以慢性病是否构成选(more...)

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【2016-05-06】 @小白:因为旧石器时代人类寿命之低,远远达不到食谱(慢性病)导致基因选择的程度。 @whigzhou: 1)旧石器时代人的寿命不是很短,许多狩猎采集社会的平均寿命可达45岁,明显比传统农业社会长 @whigzhou: 2)是否对慢性病构成选择压力,不能只看平均寿命,而要看活到较高年龄的人是否足够多,“平均寿命只有40岁”绝不意味着“活过40岁的人很少”,要考虑极高的婴儿和儿童死亡率,比如100个人,50个全部8岁前死掉,平均寿命4岁,另外50个平均寿命76岁,那么这100人的平均寿命是40岁。 @whigzhou: 3)所以慢性病是否构成选择压力,要看活到生开始得慢性病年龄(A)的人是否足够多,并且在年龄A时的预期寿命是否足够长,我认为是够的 @whigzhou: 4)食谱所影响的不只是慢性病,至少按某些支持者的理论,其健康影响从转换食谱那一刻就开始了,这样的话,选择压力的存在就无须长寿命为前提, @whigzhou: 这么说吧,若以寿命不足为由而认为旧石器食谱是扯蛋,那么祖母假说肯定也是扯蛋,因为祖母假说若要成立,相关的选择压力必须作用于停经后的女性,而旧石器时代女性平均最后一次生育年龄大约39岁,停经年龄40以上——事实是,许多人类学家都严肃对待祖母假说,并不认为是扯蛋。 @whigzhou: 前面几条只是为了回答一个理论质疑,至于对旧石器食谱的个人看法和态度,我能说的出来的,在去年的旧帖里都说过了,不再重复。  
能量均衡等式

【2015-10-13】

@海德沙龙 本文是Peter Turchin报告他实践旧石器食谱后个人体验的系列博文中最后一篇,此时他转变食谱已有27个月,不过本文大部分篇幅是在介绍人类学家Richard Wrangham有关烹饪与人类进化之关系的著作Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human,这是本非常好的书 °旧石器食谱与火

@whigzhou: Catching Fire很好,在我今年读过的书里排前五,他还教(more...)

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【2015-10-13】 @海德沙龙 本文是Peter Turchin报告他实践旧石器食谱后个人体验的系列博文中最后一篇,此时他转变食谱已有27个月,不过本文大部分篇幅是在介绍人类学家Richard Wrangham有关烹饪与人类进化之关系的著作Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human,这是本非常好的书 °旧石器食谱与火 @whigzhou: Catching Fire很好,在我今年读过的书里排前五,他还教会我用榔头敲牛排。 @whigzhou: 能量均衡等式是生计模式的核心,但以往的研究往往只按食材计算能量,而Richard Wrangham提醒我们,加工方式非常重要,是否加工及如何加工,对于从给定食材中所获取净能量的影响可达30-40% @whigzhou: 其实房屋、炉火和衣服等因素也都应纳入能量均衡式,在温带,冬天若没有保温效果良好的房屋和衣服,代谢水平要高出很多,它们对马尔萨斯极限位置的影响也很大,不过从我读到的文献看,这些因素都还没得到足够关注  
[译文]旧石器食谱与火

Paleo Diet and Fire
旧石器食谱与火

作者:Peter Turchin @ 2014-08-07
译者:Dr啊(@Dr啊)
校对:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny)
来源:evolution-institute.org,https://evolution-institute.org/blog/paleo-diet-and-fire/

It’s been a while since my last update on the Paleo diet (perhaps a better name for it is ‘Post-Neolithic diet’). Here are the links to previous blogs on this theme:

自我上次更新关于旧石器食谱(也许更好的名字是‘后新石器食谱’)的情况到现在已经有一段时间了。这是我之前有关这一话题的几篇博文的链接:

http://socialevolutionforum.com/2012/08/23/an-update-on-my-so-called-paleo-diet/
http://socialevolutionforum.com/2013/07/20/adventures-in-paleo-eating-bone-marrow/
http://socialevolutionforum.com/2013/05/04/breadfruit/

As long-time readers of my blog remember, I switched to Paleo diet in May of 2012. Within two months I noticed an improvement in my health. After half a year I lost 20 pounds and my health improved dramatically. A number of chronic health problems cleared up. At t(more...)

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Paleo Diet and Fire 旧石器食谱与火 作者:Peter Turchin @ 2014-08-07 译者:Dr啊(@Dr啊) 校对:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny) 来源:evolution-institute.org,https://evolution-institute.org/blog/paleo-diet-and-fire/ It’s been a while since my last update on the Paleo diet (perhaps a better name for it is ‘Post-Neolithic diet’). Here are the links to previous blogs on this theme: 自我上次更新关于旧石器食谱(也许更好的名字是‘后新石器食谱’)的情况到现在已经有一段时间了。这是我之前有关这一话题的几篇博文的链接: http://socialevolutionforum.com/2012/08/23/an-update-on-my-so-called-paleo-diet/ http://socialevolutionforum.com/2013/07/20/adventures-in-paleo-eating-bone-marrow/ http://socialevolutionforum.com/2013/05/04/breadfruit/ As long-time readers of my blog remember, I switched to Paleo diet in May of 2012. Within two months I noticed an improvement in my health. After half a year I lost 20 pounds and my health improved dramatically. A number of chronic health problems cleared up. At that point, I made the decision to permanently switch to this diet, and I never looked back. 我博客的长期读者还记得,我在2012年五月转向旧石器食谱。两个月之内我就发现我的健康状况有所改善。半年之后,我减掉了20磅体重,同时健康状况大幅提高。很多长期的健康问题都不见了。在那时,我决定永远的遵循这一食谱,而且再也不会回头了。 Over the last year I noticed another incremental and slow, but real, improvement. I feel better than when I was 10 years ago. I became noticeably stronger – I can now easily lift and carry things that used to give me trouble before. More embarrassingly, people comment on how well I look. I am getting a bit tired of explaining the Paleo diet, over and over again. 在过去的一整年,我发现我的健康状况有了另一种持续增长的,缓慢的,但却很真实的改善。我比十年感觉更好。很明显,我变得更强壮了——我现在可以轻易地举起并搬运之前很难搬动的物体。更让人不好意思的是,人们总是夸我气色看起来有多么好。我都有点疲于一遍遍的解释旧石器食谱这件事了。 The gospel of Paleo diet is spreading. My wife has converted to it, then my mother. My secretary.Several friends and colleagues. I am not urging anybody to switch, but the results speak for themselves. On the other hand, none of the people whom I infected with Paleo had experienced as great improvement as me. 旧石器食谱的福音一直在传播。我妻子已经皈依了,继而是我的母亲,我的秘书,还有几个朋友和同事。我并不是在劝任何人转向这一食谱,但是结果说明了一切。而另一方面,在所有被我带动并遵循该食谱的人当中,没人经历了像我这样巨大的改善。 This can be due to my genetics (I have very few generations of Neolithic ancestors). It could also be due to the fact that I am simply not tempted to stray. When I am home, I stay strictly within the guidelines (no grains, no legumes, no dairy). When I travel I periodically get poisoned because I have no control over the ingredients. 这有可能因为我的基因(大概我的新石器祖先总共才没几代吧,呵呵)。这也可能只是因为我从不试图背离该食谱。当我在家的时候,我严格遵循食谱指示(不吃谷物,不吃豆类,不吃奶制品)。当我偶尔离家在外就难免被那些食物‘毒’到,毕竟我无法控制外面食物的配料。 Anyway, the real purpose of this blog is to discuss the book I just finished reading, which is very relevant to the Paleo diet (but I thought that an update on my own experience was due). The book is by a colleague of mine, Richard Wrangham: Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human. It’s a great book, and I recommend that everybody interested in human evolution read it. 总之,这篇博文其实是要讨论一本我刚刚读过的书,此书跟旧石器食谱非常相关(但我觉得是时候要更新一下我自己的亲身经历了)。这本书是我的一位叫理查德·兰厄姆的同事所作,书名叫《燃起火堆:烹饪如何铸就了人类》。这是本了不起的书,我推荐所有对人类进化感兴趣的人都读一下。 What I found most interesting in Richard’s book is his reconstruction of the dietary shifts that enabled the evolution of large human brains (which then made possible culture, living in large groups, language, art, science, and civilization – and who knows what else). 我认为理查德书中最有趣的一点是他对饮食变化的重构。正是饮食的变化让人类进化出了巨大的大脑(该变化同时也让文化,大型群居,语言,艺术,科学和文明以及其他数不清的事情成为可能)。 The first step, which took place 5-7 million years ago, was the transition from our chimpanzee-like ancestors, forest apes, to australopithecines that inhabited drier savanna-woodlands. Australopithecine brain size (in anthropologese, “cranial capacity”) was 450 cubic cm, compared to 350-400 cm3 in forest apes. 第一阶段发生在500-700万年前,这期间我们黑猩猩般的祖先——森林猿——开始转变成南方古猿,并开始在更加干燥的稀树草原上生活。南方古猿的大脑尺寸(用人类学术语叫‘颅容量’)是450立方厘米,相比之下森林猿的大脑尺寸是350-400立方厘米。 Incidentally, and as an aside, I find slightly amusing, but mostly exasperating, Richard’s dutiful translation of cubic centimeters into cubic inches. Americans, isn’t it time to grow up? Get used to metric units! Does it really help you to know that the cranial capacity of Australopithecus was 27.5 cubic inches? If I show you an object, will you be able to estimate its volume in cubic inches? End of diatribe. 顺带说句题外话,我觉得有一件略微有些喜感但又实在让人恼火的事情,那就是理查德坚定不移的将立方厘米转换成立方英寸。美国同胞们,是时候长大了吧?赶快习惯使用公制单位吧!你真的觉得将南方古猿的大脑说成27.5立方英寸更能帮助你理解?假如我随便拿个物体,你能用立方英寸估算其容量吗?好了,牢骚到此结束。 The food resource that enabled this transition was the underground storage parts of plants, highly concentrated sources of energy-rich starch. Parenthetically, that’s why potatoes, yams, carrots, beets, sweet potatoes, and taro are such great foods for humans – we have been eating them, or equivalents, for millions of years. Australopithecines dug these tubers, rhizomes, and corms (we are now speaking ‘botanese’) with sharpened sticks. 让这一步转变得以发生的食物来源是植物埋在地下的“储能”部分——那富含高能量淀粉的根茎。顺便说一句,这也是为什么土豆,山药,胡萝卜,甜菜根,红薯和芋头是对人类非常好的食物——我们已经食用这些或类似食物几百万年了。南方古猿用削尖了的棍棒将地下的块茎,根状茎,以及球茎(我们好像在说‘不丹语’)挖出来。 The next step was the transition to ‘habilines’ (such as Homo habilis) more than 2 million years ago: from 450 to 612 cm3. The big dietary change that fueled this increase in brain size was probably meat eating. Or marrow eating – see my blog on this issue. 接下来的阶段发生在200多万年前,南方古猿转变成‘人属猿人’(比如‘能人’),其大脑尺寸也从450立方厘米增加到了612立方厘米。造成大脑尺寸增加的饮食变化可能是肉类的摄取或是骨髓的摄取——请参见我的这篇博文(https://evolution-institute.org/blog/adventures-in-paleo-eating-bone-marrow/?source=sef)。 After that, brain size in early human started growing in a really explosive manner. Early Homo erectus (1.8 million years ago) had brains of 870 cm3. 800 thousand years ago Homo heidelbergensis (which could be simply a subspecies of erectus) had brains of 1200 cm3. That’s awfully close to the modern Homo sapiens, whose cranial capacity is 1400 cm3. 在这之后,早期人类的大脑尺寸开始爆炸式的增长。早期的直立猿人(180万年前)拥有870立方厘米的大脑。80万年前的海德堡人(可能只是直立人的一个亚种)拥有1200立方厘米的大脑。这个尺寸已经非常接近现代智人1400立方厘米的大脑尺寸了。 Where did the energy that fueled these oversize brains come from? Wrangham argues that it came from cooking. I find his argument quite convincing. Thermal processing of tubers and meats doubles the ability of our guts to extract calories and nutrients from these food sources. 支撑这种大尺寸大脑的能量来自什么地方?兰厄姆认为来自烹饪。我亦觉得他的论点很有说服力。对块茎和肉类的热加工让我们的消化系统从这些食材中攫取热量和营养的能力翻了倍。 The use of fire is securely attested at the Gesher Benot Ya’akov site near Jordan River, which is dated to 790,000 years ago. But here we have archaeological evidence of hearths, permanent fires around which human nuclear families would gather around every evening for the most important meal of the day. It is quite likely that hearths were a product of long evolution, with humans using fire for cooking well before the evolution of human family (which as Wrangham argues, was itself a result of cooking food – but you will have to read his book to find out the details of the argument). 现在已经确切证明了,早在79万年前,约旦河附近的Gesher Benot Ya’akov遗址中,火就已经被使用了。现在我们又有了关于灶台的考古学证据,核心家庭成员每天晚上会为了一天当中最重要的一餐而聚集在一堆持续燃烧的火堆周围。灶台很可能是一个长期进化的产物,毕竟人类使用火进行烹饪要远远早于家庭的进化(亦如兰厄姆所提出,家庭这一概念本身也是烹饪食物所带来的结果——但是你得去读他的书来了解这个论点的更多细节)。 Even if you buy Wrangham’s theory (which I do), it raises some questions. When did humans learn how to start fires? Remember The Quest for Fire, where the plot centers on this issue? 就算你同意兰厄姆的理论(我就同意),这其中仍然有些疑问。人类什么时候开始学会生火的?还记得电影《火之战》吗,整部电影的情节都是围绕这个问题展开的。 OK, it’s getting late, so I’d better end this post. But I can’t resist adding one thing. What makes Richard’s arguments particularly compelling is his ‘experimental’ approach to the questions he discusses. He has tried eating like a gorilla (he failed, we simply don’t have the guts for the gorilla diet). Another experiment he tried with his friends was chewing raw goat meat – with or without adding tough leaves. Sure, adding leaves produced better traction to reduce goat’s thigh muscle. But cooking it worked even better. 好啦,时候不早了,我最好给文章结个尾。但是我必须再说一点。让理查德的论证异常有说服力的是,他对所讨论的问题使用了‘实验性’的方法。他曾经尝试像只大猩猩那么吃(他最终失败了,我们就是没有勇气像大猩猩那么吃【译注:原文“gut”为“肠胃”与“勇气”之双关,按兰厄姆的观点,人类无法像大猩猩那么吃,是因为我们的肠胃已经适应了熟食】)。他和他的朋友所尝试的另一个实验是直接进食生的山羊肉——不确定是否同时吃一些硬的植物叶子。诚然,吃生山羊肉的时候加点硬叶子可以增加附着力从而分解山羊紧致的肌肉。但是把羊肉烹饪一下肯定更好。【译注:黑猩猩吃肉时会掺一些叶子一起嚼。】 So what’s the take-home lesson? Fire up that barbecue grill – we evolved to eat meat cooked over the open fire! 所以今天我们学到了什么呢?点燃烧烤炉吧,我们进化到要吃用明火烹饪过的食物了! (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

[译文]汇报一下我实践旧石器食谱的情况

An Update on My (So-Called) Paleo Diet
汇报一下我实践(所谓的)旧石器食谱的情况

作者:Peter Turchin @ 2012­8­23
译者:bear,校对:陈小乖(lion_kittyyyyy)
来源:Social Evolution Forum,https://evolution-institute.org/blog/an-update-on-my-so-called-paleo-diet/

As I wrote in this blog, in early May I started on a new diet, which is misleadingly (for reasons I will come back to) called the ‘Paleo Diet.’

正如我在早先那篇博客中所写的那样【编注:本组翻译了这篇博客,见:http://weibo.com/p/1001603875391709540593 】,五月初我开始尝试一种新食谱,这种食谱有个容易误导人的名字——“旧石器食谱”(我会在之后说明它容易误导人的原因)。

First, a progress report. Over the 3.5 months I lost 15 pounds, or around a pound per week. (more...)

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An Update on My (So-Called) Paleo Diet 汇报一下我实践(所谓的)旧石器食谱的情况 作者:Peter Turchin @ 2012­8­23 译者:bear,校对:陈小乖(lion_kittyyyyy) 来源:Social Evolution Forum,https://evolution-institute.org/blog/an-update-on-my-so-called-paleo-diet/ As I wrote in this blog, in early May I started on a new diet, which is misleadingly (for reasons I will come back to) called the ‘Paleo Diet.’ 正如我在早先那篇博客中所写的那样【编注:本组翻译了这篇博客,见:http://weibo.com/p/1001603875391709540593 】,五月初我开始尝试一种新食谱,这种食谱有个容易误导人的名字——“旧石器食谱”(我会在之后说明它容易误导人的原因)。 First, a progress report. Over the 3.5 months I lost 15 pounds, or around a pound per week. Not particularly impressive by the standards of super diets that promise that you will lose 20 pounds of fat in a month, or even in a week. On the other hand, I haven’t done anything drastic, like starving myself, or undergoing stomach stapling. In fact, I eat as much as I want, I just don’t eat certain foods (as a reminder – no cereals, no legumes, and no dairy). 首先,报告进度。经过三个半月,我的体重减轻了15磅,大约每周减一磅。以那些保证你在一个月甚至一周内减掉20磅脂肪的超级减肥食谱的标准来说,这一成果并不让人印象深刻。另一方面,我没有采取任何激烈的手段,比如让自己挨饿或去做缩胃手术。事实上,我想吃多少就吃多少,我只是不吃特定种类的食物。(友情提示:不吃谷物、豆类和奶制品)。 In any case, losing weight was never the main purpose, getting healthier was. And it worked remarkably well, much better than I expected. It is difficult to describe, but basically I feel much younger and I have a lot more energy. Probably the best way to put it is that I feel as though I stopped poisoning myself. 无论如何,减重从来不是我的主要目的,变得更健康才是。这个食谱的效果非常好,比我预期的要好得多。这很难形容,但基本上,我感觉自己更年轻、更有精力了。或许对这个食谱带给我的变化最好的表述是——我感觉好像不再毒害自己了。 I was raised in a big city (Moscow) and lived for several years in another one (New York). In 1980 I moved away from NYC and since then I have lived in a succession of small towns or in rural areas (except for two years in Seattle, but it’s hardly a megalopolis). After a while I noticed that when I come for an extended visit to a big city, after a few days I start feeling ‘off,’ not really sick, but not really well either. 我在大城市(莫斯科)长大,然后在另一个大城市(纽约)住了几年。1980年,我搬离了纽约市,之后就一直在一些小城镇或者郊区居住(在这期间我在西雅图住了两年,但它也算不上大都市)。一段时间之后,我注意到当我去大城市进行长期访问时,几天后我就会有一种“宕机”的感觉,不是真的生病,但也不是很健康。 After returning to my rural abode, I almost immediately get better. This happens every time when I have to stay in a city for longer than 3-5 days. I think what happens is that the urban pollution simply poisons your body. People who live in cities all the time are used to it, and stop noticing it (as I did, when I was a megalopolis dweller myself). 回到郊区的住所之后,我几乎立即就会变好。每次待在城市超过3-5天就会这样。我想这是因为城市的污染一直在毒害着你的身体。一直住在城里的人已经习惯了这些污染,而且也不再注意到这些污染(我自己是大城市居民的时候也是这样)。 Well, switching to my new diet was like moving away from New York (although it took a little longer to flush the poisons out of the system, but the effect was even more striking). This is what I mean when I say that I feel as though I stopped poisoning myself. So the diet definitely works. I have not done any blind trials, so it all could be just the placebo effect, but I don’t give a damn. It works. Initially I was going to give it 6 months and then decide whether to stick with it. But now, just past the midpoint, it is clear that I will be sticking with it. 切换到我的新食谱就好比搬离纽约(尽管它需要更多时间排出毒素,但效果甚至更加显著)。这就是之前我说“我感觉好像不再毒害自己了”的意思。所以,这个食谱绝对有效。我没有做过任何盲测,所以这可能仅仅是安慰剂效果,但我才不管呢!它是有效的!起初我打算用六个月时间尝试这个食谱,然后再决定是不是要继续。但现在时间只过了一半我就肯定自己会继续了。 Now to why calling this a ‘Paleo diet’ is a complete misnomer. Most people, when they hear me explain that I am on the paleo diet, at best think that I don’t eat carbs (a la Atkinson). At worst, they think I run around through the bushes barefoot and hunt game with my bare hands. 现在来说说为什么管它叫“旧石器食谱”完全是用词不当。当我给人们解释我在尝试旧石器食谱的时候,大多数人最好的理解就是我不吃碳水化合物(就像Atkins食谱)。最差的理解是,他们认为我光着脚丫在灌木丛中乱跑,赤手空拳进行追猎野兽。 I need to come up with a better name – how about the ‘post-neolithic diet’? I’ll still have to explain it, but at least people will not have any preconceived notions that I will have to dispel. 我要想个好点的名字——“后新石器时代食谱”怎么样?我仍然不得不解释它,但至少大家不会先入为主地以为我必须去追逐猎物。 When I explain to friends that I don’t eat any cereals or grains, legumes, or dairy, a frequent reply is – “what’s left?!” Actually, a lot. All kinds of meat, any seafood, eggs, all kinds of fresh vegetables (salad type – lettuce, tomatoes, cukes, radishes, green scallions, cilantro, peppers), other vegetables (all varieties of cabbages, numerous kinds of squash, avocado, olives, asparagus, onions and leaks, spinach), root vegetables (potatoes, yams, carrots, root parsley, yucca, and a number of others I haven’t explored yet), fruits and berries and nuts. No caveman ate the kind of varied diet that we can obtain by an easy trip to the supermarket. So the ‘paleo diet’ is a complete misnomer. 当我对朋友们说我不吃谷物、豆类和奶制品的时候,得到最多的回答是“那还剩啥?!”事实上,还剩非常多。所有肉类、任何种类的海鲜、蛋类、各种新鲜蔬菜(沙拉类—生菜、番茄、黄瓜、萝卜、葱、香菜、甜椒),还有其他蔬菜(各种卷心菜、种类繁多的南瓜、牛油果、橄榄、芦笋、洋葱、韭葱和菠菜),根类蔬菜(土豆、番薯、胡萝卜、欧洲防风、木薯【译注:此处原文yucca疑为yuca之讹】和其它许多我还没尝试过的根类蔬菜),还有水果、浆果和坚果。没有原始人能够吃到种类这么丰富的食物,而我们只要简单地去超市逛一圈就行。所以旧石器食谱这种叫法完全是用词不当。 Additionally, there is no particular virtue in eating an undomesticated variety, compared to a domesticated one. In particular, I suspect that wild rice is probably worse for you than white rice. Both are grass seeds, and so poisonous by definition. But with the domesticated rice there is at least hope that the most poisonous varieties have been selected out (although it is not a certainty). Interesting how an evolutionary approach makes you look at things from a very different angle. 此外,和吃养殖的食物相比,吃各种野生的食物并没有什么好处。特别是,我怀疑对人类来说菰可能不如大米【编注:菰又称茭米,与水稻同属禾本科稻亚科稻族,虽名为wild rice,但与水稻亲缘并不很近】。两者都是草的种子,所以根据定义都是有毒的。但对于种植的稻米而言,至少可以期望其中多数有毒物质在人类培育选择大米的过程中都已经被排除出去了(尽管这事并不确定)。进化论的思路能让你从不同角度看问题,这很有趣。 Another problem with this diet is that food now takes a larger chunk from the budget. Fresh vegetables are expensive! And you need to eat a lot of them to get an equivalent of a one pound package of pasta, even a fancy one. This is no poor person’s diet… Also, wild-caught salmon is more expensive than cultured salmon. And it goes without saying that a steak from a grass-fed cow will cost an order of magnitude more than a pound of pink slime. Although I haven’t yet been able to find a reliable supplier of grass-fed beef around here. 另一个问题是这种食谱要花更多钱。新鲜蔬菜很贵!并且你需要吃大量的新鲜蔬菜才能和吃一磅意大利面相当,即使是上等意大利面价格也低于这些新鲜蔬菜。这不是穷人能负担得起的食谱……此外,野生三文鱼也比家养的贵。更不用说牛排的价格了,一块草饲牛排的价格可以买到超过一磅的粉红肉泥。尽管我还没在附近找到过能买到可靠的草饲牛肉的地方。 In addition to expense in terms of money, following this diet is more time-consuming. In my family’s division of labor I am the one who cooks. So now I can’t simply stop, on my way from work, for a Chinese take-out or a pizza, I have to cook each and every meal myself. I mean, I like to cook, but doing it every day is a chore. 除了钱上的开销之外,遵照这个食谱需要花费更多时间。在我家的分工中,我是负责做饭的。所以现在我不能简单地在回家路上停车买个中餐外卖或匹萨了,我必须每顿都自己做。我的意思是,尽管我喜欢做饭,但每天都做是一种负担。 Travel has also been complicated. Most restaurants are worthless. Mexican food, for example – it’s all about tortillas, rice, beans, and cheese. There is nothing left. Indian is all about rice, lentils, other  beans, nan. In most other restaurants they add ingredients I can’t eat into almost everything. Because I haven’t eaten wheat-based products for three months, I find that I am now more sensitive to small amounts of flour that may be added to a sauce. 旅行也变得麻烦了。大多数餐馆都不能吃。比如墨西哥菜,都是面饼、米饭、豆子和奶酪,没有别的了。印度菜都是米饭、扁豆、其它豆子和馕。其他大多数餐馆都会在食物中加入我不能吃的食材。由于我已经三个月没吃小麦制品了,所以我发现现在我对酱料中加入的少量面粉更加敏感了。 The best bet is French restaurants (also Italian and Spanish), but they are also the most expensive. I now have to study the menu real careful, and then negotiate substitutions. Fortunately, American waiters seem to be used to all kinds of weird dieting preferences, and in most cases are very gracious and accommodating. 最好的选择是去法式餐厅(还有意大利餐厅和西班牙餐厅),但他们都是最贵的。我现在必须非常认真地研究菜单,然后商量能不能替换掉一些食材。幸运的是,美国的服务员看上去已经习惯了各种特殊的饮食偏好,大多数情况下他们都非常友善和包容。 Finally, I had to give up beer. I still like the taste (now the memory of it…), but when I look at a glass of beer that a friend is drinking, I see the distillation of all the worst grass seed poisons (shudder). So there is no temptation to order one for myself. 最后,我不得不放弃喝啤酒。我还是很喜欢它的味道(此刻正在回想这美味……),可当我看着朋友喝的那杯啤酒时,我看见的是最糟糕的有毒种子的蒸馏提取物(不寒而栗)。所以就没有给自己也来一杯的欲望了。 The psychological aspects of this dietary shift are also very fascinating. My good colleague Jon Haidt has a wonderful metaphor. He compares our conscious mind to the rider of an elephant (the subconscious mind). The rider may be thinking he is in charge, but the elephant will do whatever he wants. That’s why it is so difficult to be on most diets, and that’s why dieters are prone to recurrent bingeing on forbidden foods. I will not embarrass myself with examples, but I have about as much control over my own elephant as an average person. 这个饮食转变引起的心理上的变化同样令人着迷。我的好同事Jon Haidt有个精彩的比喻。他把我们有意识的心智比作骑在大象上的人(大象是潜意识的心智)。骑象人认为他在掌控,但大象其实可以做任何自己想做的事。这就是为什么大多数节食食谱都很难被坚持下来的原因,这也是为什么节食者倾向于重新大吃大喝食谱禁止的食品。很尴尬,我自己就是个例子,但在控制自己大象的能力上,我已经有平均水平了。 But in the case of this diet my elephant and I seem to be of the same mind. My wife continues to eat bread, occasionally pasta and rice, and ice-cream. Today I had a dinner in a restaurant with a good friend, who was eating yammy-looking rolls, among other things. What I find surprising is that I don’t need to exert my will to stay away from these foods. At least so far – we’ll see if it lasts. 但现在这个食谱的情况是,我和我的大象看上去想法一致。我老婆继续吃她的面包,偶尔来点意大利面和米饭,还有冰激凌。今天我和一个好朋友在餐馆吃晚饭,他吃着看上去很好吃的面包卷,还有一些其它东西。让我感到惊喜的是,我不需要使用意志力就能抵制这些食物。至少现在是这样,我们以后会知道这种情况能不能持续。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

旧石器食谱·问与答

最近不少朋友跟我打听有关旧石器食谱(Paleo Diet)的事情,有些因为没有持续关注我的言论,所以不太了解来龙去脉,甚至有些误解,我在这里从头说明一下。

Q: 什么是旧石器食谱?

A:简单说,是对农业时代特有的食物总体上持怀疑态度,具体点说就是:

  • 不吃:谷物、奶类、豆类、精制糖和植物油。
  • 主要吃:肉(特别是脂肪比例较高的肉)、蛋、低糖高纤蔬菜、坚果、水果。

更多细节可参考维基Paleo Diet词条:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic_diet

Q:那你现在吃些什么?

A:我实践的版本和标准定义有所不同,我喝少量酸奶,但排除了薯类,而按标准做法,旧石器食谱是可以包括薯类的;我也不完全排除豆类,特别是嫩豆和外皮比例较高的豆类,前者是因为我特别爱吃,后者是因为纤维量高;另外,和标准做法不同,我也不控制盐。

目前我的食谱大概是这样:

  • 主食:牛羊猪肉、鸡鸭肉、鸡蛋、鱼;豇豆、菠菜、白菜、卷心菜、胡萝卜;
  • 零食:常吃的有花生和瓜子;水果不多,折合每天不到一个梨;
  • 饮料:每天三到四杯咖啡,两壶绿茶,约合三升水;红酒半杯;少量酸奶,每周不到一升;

一顿典型的正餐:

  • 一块半牛排(225克)+一斤豇豆,或,
  • 半只烤鸭+一斤菠菜,或,
  • 五个鸡蛋+一两熏肉+一颗西兰花,或,
  • 半斤红烧肉+两颗娃娃菜;

这是平时,上馆子或者周末改善时,会多吃不少。

Q:高脂低碳水的吃法不就是Atkins吗,旧石器食谱有何不同?

A:高脂低碳水这点上,两者确实很像,但Atkins主要关注食物的主营养成分(more...)

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最近不少朋友跟我打听有关旧石器食谱(Paleo Diet)的事情,有些因为没有持续关注我的言论,所以不太了解来龙去脉,甚至有些误解,我在这里从头说明一下。 Q: 什么是旧石器食谱? A:简单说,是对农业时代特有的食物总体上持怀疑态度,具体点说就是:
  • 不吃:谷物、奶类、豆类、精制糖和植物油。
  • 主要吃:肉(特别是脂肪比例较高的肉)、蛋、低糖高纤蔬菜、坚果、水果。
更多细节可参考维基Paleo Diet词条: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic_diet Q:那你现在吃些什么? A:我实践的版本和标准定义有所不同,我喝少量酸奶,但排除了薯类,而按标准做法,旧石器食谱是可以包括薯类的;我也不完全排除豆类,特别是嫩豆和外皮比例较高的豆类,前者是因为我特别爱吃,后者是因为纤维量高;另外,和标准做法不同,我也不控制盐。 目前我的食谱大概是这样:
  • 主食:牛羊猪肉、鸡鸭肉、鸡蛋、鱼;豇豆、菠菜、白菜、卷心菜、胡萝卜;
  • 零食:常吃的有花生和瓜子;水果不多,折合每天不到一个梨;
  • 饮料:每天三到四杯咖啡,两壶绿茶,约合三升水;红酒半杯;少量酸奶,每周不到一升;
一顿典型的正餐:
  • 一块半牛排(225克)+一斤豇豆,或,
  • 半只烤鸭+一斤菠菜,或,
  • 五个鸡蛋+一两熏肉+一颗西兰花,或,
  • 半斤红烧肉+两颗娃娃菜;
这是平时,上馆子或者周末改善时,会多吃不少。 Q:高脂低碳水的吃法不就是Atkins吗,旧石器食谱有何不同? A:高脂低碳水这点上,两者确实很像,但Atkins主要关注食物的主营养成分(营养学上叫宏量营养素),不管这些成分是哪儿来的,而旧石器食谱则主要关注食材,所以两者在一些次要成分或微量元素上可能有较大差异。 而且,在主成分上,也有重要差异,Atkins对碳水的排除更彻底,所以不吃薯类,而旧石器排除奶类和豆类。 从上一条可以看出,我的食谱其实是在旧石器的基础上朝Atkins方向修正了一点。 Q:旧石器时代的人真是这么吃的吗? A:不是。前农业时代,人类已到达所有大陆,所占据生态位千差万别,食谱当然很不一样,所谓旧石器食谱,充其量只可能与其中某些比较接近。 所以这个食谱里的所谓“旧石器”,恰当的理解是,它排除了一些农业时代特有的成分,而不是指它逼真模仿了前农业时代某个狩猎采集群体实际采用的特定食谱。所以我们不必过分细究这个名称,反正已经定义的够清楚了,叫什么名字无所谓。 Q:从小习惯了吃米面,突然戒掉不难受吗? A:嗯,会有点难受,所以我不是一开始就完全杜绝米面的,经历了三个月的过渡期,在此期间逐渐减少米面,过渡期后半段用饼干代替米饭,因为饼干的量容易调节。 Q:容易做到吗?需要很大毅力才能坚持吗? A:如果“坚持”是指控制食欲、忍着不吃的话,我觉得根本不需要坚持,很容易做到,相反,有时候要特意使劲吃才行,幸好我原本就爱吃肉而且不怕肥肉,不然的话倒是可能有点困难。 不过,我也并不是遵守的特别严格,和朋友聚餐或者过年回家这种场合就会失控,而且我原先喜欢吃点甜品,现在偶尔还吃一点,不过难得偏离一下关系不大。 Q:吃肉太多会不会蛋白质过量? A:嗯,我也考虑过这问题,所以要吃肥一点,实际上,这个食谱的重点不是一味增加蛋白质,而是用脂肪代替碳水化合物作为主要能量来源,而蛋白质只须充足即可。 不过这一点对不爱吃肥肉的人确实可能构成障碍。 Q:效果怎么样? A:感觉很好,容易观察到的效果是体重减掉了12公斤,身体状态也有所改善,不过这不太好描述,也可能只是错觉。 Q:失控的时候体重会反弹吗? A:会,但也很容易再减回去,可以说非常容易,只要接下去几顿稍微少吃一点就行。 我的体会是,转换食谱之后,身体的代谢模式好像完全不同了,我猜可能是这样:以前吃高碳水饮食时,当血糖水平下降,身体就立即产生饥饿感,促使你去寻找食物,而现在,血糖水平下降时,身体优先消耗体内脂肪,同时也可能有饥饿感,但不如以前强烈。 当然这只是我的猜测,没什么依据。 Q:有负面效果吗? A:有过,主要是大便量不足,有段时间比以前少了大概一半,所以后来我大幅增加了高纤维蔬菜的量,一开始稍有点困难,比如把一斤多豇豆当饭吃,你可能也会不太习惯,不过大便量的问题倒好像是解决了。 当然,可能还会有其他我没察觉的负面效果。 Q:旧石器食谱的健康价值有科学依据吗? A:假如“科学依据”是指系统性的经验证据、统计相关性和足够完整的因果链条,那就没有,至少我不认为现在已经有了。 但假如“科学依据”是指有点道理,而且这个道理和科学有点关系,那我认为确实有一点,那就是出于对进化原理的认识,对自然选择作用的信任,即,考虑到农业急剧改变了我们的食谱,我们怀疑,几千年的自然选择还来不及让人类充分适应农业食谱,而即便在某些方面有所适应,也可能是以牺牲另一些方面的健康为代价的。 但这只是对一般原理的信赖,没有统计和生理机制上的证据,至少还没有系统性的证据。所以我总是将这一食谱称为“我们这套迷信”,不过依我看,这是有点道理的迷信。 Q:这点道理听上去很空泛啊,你这么容易就被说服了? A:嗯,如果只是这点道理的话,不足以让我做出这么大改变,我做出决定,是因为看到有人这么做了,听他说效果很好,而且我对他的见识和判断力相当信任,于是就想,不妨尝试一下吧。 Q:搜了下有关这食谱的文章,好浓一股有机教味道啊,您老不是整天反有机教吗? A:如果你相信一样东西是好东西,总不能因为有机教徒也很热衷,就不要了吧?那好像有点不划算。 Q:你会向别人推荐这个食谱吗? A:不会主动推荐,但假如你问我是否值得试试,我会说,值得,但需要满足一些条件: 1)你目前确实有健康问题(比如肥胖)需要对付, 2)你喜欢吃肉,而且不怕吃肥肉, 3)你能方便的凑齐所需食物,据我了解,这对上班族可能不太容易,我现在多半自己做,或者去熟食店买,还算方便。 Q:黄章晋说你两个月瘦了12公斤,有这么神奇? A:黄章晋老师记性不好,实际上我上次和上上次见他时,已经瘦了很多,我是2014年7月开始转变食谱的,三个月后体重开始稳定下降,高峰期大约每周降0.5公斤,到现在一共降了12公斤,其中只有1.5公斤是最近两个月减掉的。