含有〈社会流动性〉标签的文章(7)

[译文]丹麦童话 vs 美国梦

The Atlantic: Denmark Isn’t Magic
《大西洋月刊》:丹麦并不神奇

作者:DEREK THOMPSON @ 2016-08-02
译者:明珠(@老茄爱天一爱亨亨更爱楚楚)
校对:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny)
来源:The Atlantic, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/08/the-american-dream-isnt-alive-in-denmark/494141/

New research suggests that the American dream isn’t alive in Scandinavia—but generous redistribution of wealth isn’t a terrible consolation prize.

新的研究表明,美国梦在斯堪的纳维亚没市场,但慷慨大方的财富再分配并非糟糕的安慰奖。

Danophilia is alive and well in America. Bernie Sanders and other liberals have lauded Denmark’s social democratic dream state, with its free college tuition, nearly universal pre-K, and plentiful child care.

倒是丹麦迷在美国大受欢迎且很滋(more...)

标签: |
7428
The Atlantic: Denmark Isn't Magic 《大西洋月刊》:丹麦并不神奇 作者:DEREK THOMPSON @ 2016-08-02 译者:明珠(@老茄爱天一爱亨亨更爱楚楚) 校对:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny) 来源:The Atlantic, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/08/the-american-dream-isnt-alive-in-denmark/494141/ New research suggests that the American dream isn’t alive in Scandinavia—but generous redistribution of wealth isn’t a terrible consolation prize. 新的研究表明,美国梦在斯堪的纳维亚没市场,但慷慨大方的财富再分配并非糟糕的安慰奖。 Danophilia is alive and well in America. Bernie Sanders and other liberals have lauded Denmark’s social democratic dream state, with its free college tuition, nearly universal pre-K, and plentiful child care. 倒是丹麦迷在美国大受欢迎且很滋润。伯尼·桑德斯和其他自由派盛赞丹麦是社会民主主义的梦想国度,因其免费的大学教育,几乎无所不包的学前教育和对孩童的充分关照。 While Republicans and Democrats both praise the virtues of what economists call “intergenerational mobility”—the chance for a poor young child to become at least a middle-class adult—America doesn’t lead the world in the pursuit of the American Dream. 共和党和民主党都赞美经济学家所谓的“代际流动性”——一个贫穷孩子长大至少成为中产阶级的机会——的优点,而在这一点上,美国并未在对美国梦的追求中身先士卒。 The standard social mobility statistic measures how much each generation's income is determined by its parents' income. By that measure, northern Europe and Scandinavia have the highest social mobility in the advanced world, and Denmark tops the list. 标准的社会流动性统计衡量一代人的收入多大程度上由其父母收入所决定。按照这种衡量方式,欧洲北部和斯堪的纳维亚的社会流动性在发达世界排名最高,其中丹麦名列第一。 But this Danish Dream is a “Scandinavian Fantasy,” according to a new paper by Rasmus Landersø at the Rockwool Foundation Research Unit in Copenhagen and James J. Heckman at the University of Chicago. Low-income Danish kids are not much more likely to earn a middle-class wage than their American counterparts. What’s more, the children of non-college graduates in Denmark are about as unlikely to attend college as their American counterparts. 但是,哥本哈根的Rockwool基金会研究部Rasmus Landersø和芝加哥大学James J. Heckman的一项新研究指出,丹麦梦是一个“斯堪的纳维亚空想”。相较于美国的低收入家庭的孩子,丹麦低收入家庭的孩子不会更有可能挣到中产阶级的工资。甚至相较于美国的情况,丹麦无大学文凭者的孩子上大学的希望同样渺茫。 If that’s true, how does Denmark rank number-one among all rich countries in social mobility? It’s all about what happens after wages: The country’s high taxes on the rich and income transfers to the poor “compress” economic inequality within each generation: When the rungs on the economic ladder are closer together, it’s easier to move a little bit up (or down) over the course of a generation. 如果真是这样,为何丹麦的社会流动性在所有富裕国家排名第一?这都源于工资背后的事:国家把从富人和收入里征收的高额税款转移给穷人的做法,“压缩”了代际之间的经济不平等:当社会上升阶梯的横档靠得更近时,代际之间向上(或下)移动就更容易一点。 “The Scandinavian Fantasy” is a rich, complex paper that is already making waves in the newly popular subject of intergenerational mobility. It makes three major points. “斯堪的纳维亚空想”是一篇丰富而复杂的论文,它推波助澜了代际流动性这一新近的流行主题。论文提出三个主要观点。 The first big idea is that Denmark is not a nation of Horatio Algersens. Its high social mobility is not the result of an economy that is uniquely good at helping poor children earn middle-class salaries. Instead, it is a country much like the U.S., where the children of poor parents who don’t go to college are also unlikely to attend college or earn a high wage. Social mobility in Denmark and the U.S. seem to be remarkably similar when looking exclusively at wages—that is, before including taxes and transfers. 第一个是,丹麦不是Horatio Algersens的国家。其高社会流动性并非来自利于贫穷孩子挣到中产薪水的经济。相反它很像美国,在那里没上大学的穷父母的孩子也不大可能上大学或赚取高薪。只看工资——在不考虑税收和财富转移时——丹麦和美国的社会流动性非常相似。【译注:Horatio Alger,1832年1月13日出生,是19世纪一位多产的美国作家,以少年小说而闻名。阿尔杰小说的风格大多一致,均描述一个贫穷少年如何通过其正直、努力、少许运气以及坚持不懈最终取得成功。历史学家认为,阿尔杰的作品绝不仅局限于其有趣的故事本身,小说中描述的通过自身努力获得成功的主人公,给予了大量当时美国穷人力量、信心及动力,更加刻苦工作换取成功。】 It is only after accounting for Denmark’s high taxes on the rich and large transfers to the poor that its social mobility looks so much better than the U.S.’s. America’s (relatively conservative) economic philosophy is that, with low taxes and little regulation, the market is an open savannah where the most talent will win out. But Denmark’s economic philosophy seems to be that the market is an unfortunate socioeconomic lottery system, and so the country compensates the poor with generous transfers paid by high taxes on the rich. 只有平衡了丹麦对富人征高税收和向穷人大量转移财富的因素以后,其社会流动性看上去比美国好很多。美国(相对保守的)的经济哲学是低税收和少管制,市场如同一片开放的大草原,大多数天才自然脱颖而出。而丹麦的经济理念则是,市场是一个不怎么靠谱的社会经济彩票投注系统,所以需要政府通过多征富人税并以慷慨的转移支付补偿穷人。 The second big idea in the paper is that Denmark’s large investment in public education pays off in higher cognitive skills among low-income children, but not in higher-education mobility—i.e., the odds that a child of a non-college grad will go on to finish college. 论文第二个重要观点是,丹麦公共教育的大量投资,在提高低收入家庭孩子的认知技能方面有所斩获,但未增加高等教育的流动性,比如,非大学毕业生子女完成大学学业的几率并未提高。 Overall, Denmark spends much more than the U.S. on all levels of education. In particular, a much higher share of its poor young children is enrolled in daycare and preschool than the United States. This large public investment in kids seems to increase cognitive skills among poor Danish children compared to their American peers. In international math and reading scores, for example, the poorest quartile in Denmark far outperforms their counterparts in the U.S. 总体而言,丹麦在各级教育上的花费比美国多得多。特别是贫困孩子上幼儿园和学前班的比例远高于美国。比起美国的同龄孩子,丹麦对孩子的大量公共投资提高了贫困儿童的认知能力。以国际数学和阅读考试为例,丹麦的最低四分位数的成绩值远优于美国。 But despite this far greater investment in young children and public colleges, Danish children of high-school graduates are still extremely unlikely to go onto college. Put slightly differently, a tiny share of Denmark’s college graduate population comes from homes where neither parent finished high school. The children of college-grads almost always go to college; the children of non-grads often don’t—even in Denmark. 但是,尽管在儿童和公立大学的投资大了很多,丹麦高中毕业生进入大学的可能性仍然非常低。稍有一点不同,极小一部分丹麦大学毕业生来自父母都没读完高中的家庭。大学生的孩子上大学;没上大学的父母,孩子往往也不上大学——即使在丹麦也是这样。 The third big idea is that Denmark’s welfare policies might reduce its citizens’ incentives to go to college. In the early 1990s, when Denmark raised the minimum age of eligibility for social assistance, college enrollment among Danish twenty somethings fell below its trajectory. Based on this finding, the researchers conclude that welfare policies may reduce college enrollment. Denmark makes it more comfortable to be poor and less lucrative to be rich, so many young people decide to end their education after high school. 第三个重要观点是,丹麦的福利政策可能降低了公民上大学的激励。1990年代初,丹麦提高了获得社会援助资格的最低年龄,大学在二十多岁青年人中的招生数随即跌入下行轨迹。基于这项发现,研究人员得出结论,福利政策会减少高校招生。丹麦让穷人更舒适,富人更无利可图,故而很多年轻人决定高中毕业后不再接受教育。 This final idea may be the most controversial. After all, it’s not clear how to frame this finding. Democrats can say: Despite conservative arguments that a welfare state could destroy poor young people’s ambition, Denmark’s educational mobility is no worse than the U.S. But Republicans can say: Despite liberal arguments that Denmark is so much better than the U.S. at social mobility, its poor kids are no more likely to go to college. “There is something here for the Republicans and for the Democrats,” Heckman told me. 最后这个观点可能最具争议。毕竟,目前还不清楚如何解释这个发现。民主党人可以说:尽管保守派观点认为福利国家可能毁掉贫穷年轻人的雄心壮志,可是丹麦的教育流动性并不比美国差。而共和党人可以说:尽管自由派认为丹麦的社会流动性比美国更好,可是其贫穷孩子们同样不太可能进入大学。“这些就是共和党和民主党的说辞”,Heckman告诉我。 The most significant implication of this paper is not a happy one: Equality of opportunity is a fantasy. It does not exist in the U.S., it does not exist in Denmark, and it probably doesn’t exist anywhere. The children of rich college graduates are far more likely to grow up to become rich college graduates, even in the world's social-democratic fantasyland. That is because, everywhere, parents matter. 本文最有意义的推论并不让人开心:机会平等是一种幻想。它在美国不存在,在丹麦不存在,可能在任何地方都不存在。富有的大学毕业生的孩子更有可能成长为富有的大学毕业生,即使在这世界的社会民主乐园——丹麦也是这样。这是因为,任何地方,父母都很重要。 And it’s probably a good thing that parents matter. For the government to make equality of opportunity its singular and absolute policy goal would probably mean breaking up neighborhoods, forcing arranged marriages, enrolling all children in a unified curriculum, and having them all taught by a mass-produced robot; that would eliminate neighborhood effects, assortative mating, peer effects, curricular differences, and the problem of unequal teaching quality. It is unclear that there is a constituency for this policy, even among the most radical of Bernie bros. 当然,父母很重要可能是件好事。对想要实现机会平等的政府来说,其单一而绝对的政策目标,将可能意味着打破邻里关系,强行安排婚姻,统一所有孩子的学习课程,让大批量生产的机器人教授所有孩子;那样将消除邻里影响、选择性的婚配关系【编注:即人们从与自己地位、收入、教育等方面背景相似的人群中选择配偶的倾向】、同侪效应、课程差异和不同教学质量的问题。不知道是否有选区支持这种政策,即使是最激进的桑德斯支持者。 But just as Denmark’s policy may have its own unintended consequences, the American philosophy of opportunity has its own dark side. For example, high income inequality in the U.S. makes a college degree more valuable in America than in similar countries. This may encourage more poor Americans to enroll in college. 但是,正如丹麦政策有自己意想不到的后果,美国式的自我奋斗争取机会的哲学也有自己的暗面。例如,美国显著的收入不平等使美国大学学位比在同类国家更值钱。这会鼓励更多美国穷人上大学。 For many, college pays off. But the recent rise in college attainment in the U.S. has come at a terrible cost for some. Student debt has exploded, particularly at for-profit colleges serving older, poorer students, the majority of whom drop out with student loans that aren’t dischargeable in bankruptcy. 对于很多人来说,上大学是值得的。但是对于一些人,近期大学费用已经上涨到了糟糕的程度。学生债务激增,特别是上营利性院校的年纪较大的穷学生,他们中的大多数辍学时仍带着就算破产也必须偿还的学生贷款。 So the social siren of American inequality—join the rich! go to college!—lures many first-generation students to put tens of thousands of dollars toward a degree that they never get. If they default on their student loans, they won’t be able to get a loan to buy a house. Which means the housing market is constrained by student debt defaults. Which means other industries that rely on a healthy housing market—furniture, cars, plants, kitchen appliances, apparel—are also affected. 因此,美国社会不公平的刺耳警报——成为富人!考上大学!——诱使许多第一代学生花费上万美元以期获得一张他们得不到的文凭。如果他们拖欠学生贷款,将无法获得贷款买房子。这意味着学生债务违约限制了房地产市场发展。也意味着依赖良好运行的房地产市场的其他工业,如家具、汽车、种植、厨房电器和服装都会受到影响。 Denmark doesn’t have all the answers, and apparently its leaders know it—that’s why they have such a strong public assistance system in the first place. But the U.S. mythology of social mobility is also self-defeating, in ways that are exceptionally American. 丹麦没有给出所有的答案,显然其领导人知道这一点,这就是为什么他们首先建立了一套强有力的公共援助制度。但是,美国社会流动性的神话,以非常美国的方式,也打了自己的脸。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

[译文]北欧的顶层为何坐得那么安稳

北欧的1%比美国的1%待遇更好
Scandinavia treats its 1% even better than the US

作者:Allison Schrager @ 2016-05-13
译者:Luis Rightcon(@Rightcon)
校对:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy)
来源:Quartz,http://qz.com/528594/scandinavia-treats-its-1-even-better-than-the-us/

Young voters in America are growing skeptical of their country’s brand of capitalism. Their enthusiasm for Bernie Sanders suggests they crave something different, a romanticized version of Nordic socialism, with its generous welfare state and high tax rates.

美国的年轻选民们正在逐渐对他们国家的资本主义招牌产生怀疑。他们对民主党总统候选人Bernie Sanders的热情暗示了他们渴求某种不同的东西,一种浪漫化的、慷慨大方的北欧式社会主义高税率福利国家。

It is true that Nordic countries have a more equal distribution of wealth and income. They also have 标签: | |

7299
北欧的1%比美国的1%待遇更好 Scandinavia treats its 1% even better than the US 作者:Allison Schrager @ 2016-05-13 译者:Luis Rightcon(@Rightcon) 校对:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy) 来源:Quartz,http://qz.com/528594/scandinavia-treats-its-1-even-better-than-the-us/ Young voters in America are growing skeptical of their country’s brand of capitalism. Their enthusiasm for Bernie Sanders suggests they crave something different, a romanticized version of Nordic socialism, with its generous welfare state and high tax rates. 美国的年轻选民们正在逐渐对他们国家的资本主义招牌产生怀疑。他们对民主党总统候选人Bernie Sanders的热情暗示了他们渴求某种不同的东西,一种浪漫化的、慷慨大方的北欧式社会主义高税率福利国家。 It is true that Nordic countries have a more equal distribution of wealth and income. They also have more economic mobility than the US. But what we admire about Nordic countries frays when you dig into their wealthiest 1%. 北欧国家确实有着更平均的财富和收入分配。他们在经济流动性方面也比美国表现得更好。但是当我们深入了解北欧国家的那1%最富有的人群时,我们的上述赞誉便可能遭到严重动摇。 Economists Simon Halphen, Wojciech Kopczuk, and Claus Thustrup Kreiner studied wealth among Danes(pdf). They observed that the extraordinary mobility found at lower levels disappears once you get into the very top of the wealth distribution. 三位经济学家Simon Halphen,Wojciech Kopczuk和Claus Thustrup研究了丹麦人的财富。他们观察到,丹麦较富及以下阶层中能看到的那种极高的经济流动性,在财富金字塔的最高层是不存在的。 If you are born into a family in the top 1% of wealth, odds are pretty good, you’ll end up there too. They estimate having parents in the 1% makes you 18 times more likely to be in the top 1% yourself; the odds double if your grandparents and parents were also in the 1%. 如果你出生在前1%的最富裕家庭,那么你就很可能一直留在这一阶层直到离世。他们估计,如果你的父母属于最富1%,那你进入最富1%的可能性就会增加18倍;如果你的祖父母和父母都属于最富1%,那么这一可能性会再增加一倍。 Studies also find that if a man’s father was not in the 0.1% he can forget about reaching the 0.1% in Sweden. The very wealthy ranks in Sweden tend to be dominated by the same family dynasties each generation. 研究还发现,对于一个普通瑞典人来说,如果他父亲不在财富积累的前0.1%,那么他自己也就别想着进入这0.1%的群体了。瑞典的财富排行榜往往被同样的豪族世家一代代把持着。 Nordic tax policy protects the wealthiest 1% by placing very high taxes on income and, by American standards, modest taxes on large inheritances. The high income taxes make it harder for a successful Scandinavian entrepreneur to earn his way into the top 1%. The low inheritance taxes make it relatively easy to pass on large estates. In America, income taxes are lower, and estate taxes higher on wealthy fortunes are higher. 北欧的税收政策保护最富有的1%人群,这体现在所得税极高,而大额遗产税与美国标准相比则要轻些。高所得税把斯堪迪纳维亚的成功企业家们拦在了1%的大门外。相对较低的遗产税给巨额遗产继承提供了方便。相较之下,美国的所得税较轻,而越富裕的人群所面对的遗产税也越高。 Tax policy may make it harder for rich Americans to maintain a spot in the top 1% generation after generation. It is hard to make a simple comparison between Nordic countries because American tax returns don’t include wealth holdings until people die and taxes are paid on their estates. But there is some evidence the richest Americans are more likely to be self-made entrepreneurs rather than members of family dynasties. 这样的税收政策可能使得富有的美国人难以一代代保持住财富最顶端1%的位置。但我们很难将北欧国家同美国简单地做比较,因为美国的纳税申报表是直到纳税人离世后征收遗产税时才会将持有财富计入征收。不过有一些证据表明最富有的美国人更多是白手起家的企业家,而不是富豪世家的成员。 A study by Kopczuk and Lena Edlund looked at estate tax data and observed that there are fewer women in the top 0.01% than in the 1960s. They argue that this is evidence of more self-made people cracking the 0.01% because heirs are equally likely to be male or female, but successful entrepreneurs tend to be male. Kopczuk和Lena Edlund所做的一项针对遗产税数据的研究显示,现在(美国的)财富顶端0.01%的人群中女性比例比1960年代时更少了。他们认为这是许多白手起家的人们挤进0.01%财富榜的表现,因为财富继承人总是男女均衡的,而成功的(白手起家)企业家则往往是男性。 The turnover in America’s top 0.01% comes from some combination of new entrepreneurs accumulating more wealth than established wealthy families, multiple heirs dividing fortunes, and estate taxes eroding family fortunes (though Kopczuk cautions there’s a lot of tax evasion when it comes to inheritances). 美国财富顶端的0.01%的流动是多重因素作用的结果,包括新晋企业家财富积累速度比老牌富豪家族更快、多个继承人分割财富和遗产税对于家族财富的侵蚀等(虽然Kopczuk告诫称美国的遗产税方面有相当程度的漏税逃税情况)。 Since most of the population lives outside the 1%, the mobility among the poor and middle class in Scandinavia is enviable and probably more important. But if you think the biggest threat to the economy is wealth concentration among the 1% being limited to a few powerful families, Scandinavia is not the utopia people make it out to be. 由于绝大多数人群与1%无关,北欧地区的贫穷和中产阶层的高流动性确实值得羡慕,或许也更为重要。但是如果你认为经济发展所面临的最大威胁是财富金字塔的顶层被极少数世家豪族霸占,那么北欧国家着实不是人们期盼的乌托邦。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

追求幸福

【2016-07-13】

1)影响幸福感主要因素是相对社会地位及地位之近期变动,可以几个指标衡量:社会阶梯的级数(N),个体所能感知到的级数(M),个体处于哪一级(P),最近之升降(C),

2)处于各级的人口比例是不均匀的,至少从中位阶梯(即,站在该级上的人,其地位不低于一半人口)往上,数量呈指数下降,

3)社会大型化和复杂化将增加总的级数N,

4)密集居住、高流动性、发达媒体,将增加个体所能感知到的级数M,

5)增加M会让一些人(X)感觉自己相对地位下降了,同时让另一些人(Y)感觉自己相对地位上升了,因为(2),(more...)

标签: | | | |
7257
【2016-07-13】 1)影响幸福感主要因素是相对社会地位及地位之近期变动,可以几个指标衡量:社会阶梯的级数(N),个体所能感知到的级数(M),个体处于哪一级(P),最近之升降(C), 2)处于各级的人口比例是不均匀的,至少从中位阶梯(即,站在该级上的人,其地位不低于一半人口)往上,数量呈指数下降, 3)社会大型化和复杂化将增加总的级数N, 4)密集居住、高流动性、发达媒体,将增加个体所能感知到的级数M, 5)增加M会让一些人(X)感觉自己相对地位下降了,同时让另一些人(Y)感觉自己相对地位上升了,因为(2),X的比例远高于Y,所以增加M总是拉低社会总的幸福感水平, 6)城市化、大众媒体和网络社交都会提高M 7)高等教育也会提高个体的M值 8)传统社会的结构较为扁平,同等规模的N值小于现代社会 9)传统社会绝大多数人生活中小社会,城市规模也较小,社会视野和社交范围皆较小,故同等经济条件下M值更小 10)以上大概可以解释,为何当收入提高到某个水平之后,增加收入不再能提高幸福感 11)以上还可得出几个推断:同等经济条件下,都市人比小城市人幸福感低,博士生比高中生幸福感低,用微信的比不用微信的幸福感低…… 12)我认为『追求幸福』毫无意义  
[译文]私立学校与社会成就

Social mobility: why does private school give you such a leg up?
社会流动性:为什么私立学校能助你一臂之力?

作者:Matt Dickson @ 2015-8-18
译者:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy)
校对:小册子(@昵称被抢的小册子)
来源:The Conversation,https://theconversation.com/social-mobility-why-does-private-school-give-you-such-a-leg-up-45739

Ever since John Major declared his shock at the dominance of the privately educated throughout Britain’s “upper echelons of power”, there has been a brighter spotlight shone on the way top professions in society are dominated by a selective elite.

约翰·梅杰曾对私立学校毕业生在英国“权力梯次上层”的支配地位表示震惊,自此以后,优选精英如何占据社会顶层职业就受到越来越多的关注。

Addressing this problem has never been more important for UK social mobility. With the re-shaping of the economy towards services, it’s predicted that four out of five future jobs will be in these professions, making them key to the future of social mobility.

对于英国的社会流动性而言,处理这个问题的重要性前所未有。由于经济正在向服务业转型,预计未来有五分之四的工作岗位将来自这些顶层职业,因此它们就成为未来社会流动性的关键。

Alan Milburn’s 2012 report into fair access to the professions showed 43% of barristers, 54% of chief executives, 51% of top medics and 54% of leading journalists attended private schools. Nationally, only 7% of children attend private schools.

Alan Milburn 2012年关于公平职业机会的报告显示,43%的高级律师、54%的行政总监、51%的高级医生以及54%的新闻行业领袖念过私立学校。而全国范围内,现在只有7%的儿童在私立学校读书。

Research from the UCL Institute of Education and the University of Cambridge found that in a raw comparison, graduates who had attended private schools were 32% more likely to gain a “high-status” job – defined as the “higher managerial, administrative or professional” occupations – than state-school graduates from similar family types.

伦敦大学学院教育研究所和剑桥大学的研究发现,以来自相似家庭类型的大学毕业生做粗略比较,曾念过私立学校的比只念过公立学校的毕业生,找到“高等”工作的可能性要高出32%。该项研究将“高等”工作界定为“管理上、行政上或专业性上较高的”职业。

Even when accounting for other factors that could be driving this difference – such as a person’s grades in school, the university they attended, the course and qualification they got, or their age and gender – people who went to private school were still 8% more likely to access a high-status job after leaving university.

有一些其它因素也可能促成这一差异,比如在校成绩、所念大学、所修课程和专业资格、以及年龄与性别等。但即使将这些因素全都考虑在内,念过私立学校的学生大学毕业后获得高等工作的可能性仍然要高出8%。

A 标签: |

6298

Social mobility: why does private school give you such a leg up? 社会流动性:为什么私立学校能助你一臂之力?

作者:Matt Dickson @ 2015-8-18 译者:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy) 校对:小册子(@昵称被抢的小册子) 来源:The Conversation,https://theconversation.com/social-mobility-why-does-private-school-give-you-such-a-leg-up-45739 Ever since John Major declared his shock at the dominance of the privately educated throughout Britain’s “upper echelons of power”, there has been a brighter spotlight shone on the way top professions in society are dominated by a selective elite. 约翰·梅杰曾对私立学校毕业生在英国“权力梯次上层”的支配地位表示震惊,自此以后,优选精英如何占据社会顶层职业就受到越来越多的关注。 Addressing this problem has never been more important for UK social mobility. With the re-shaping of the economy towards services, it’s predicted that four out of five future jobs will be in these professions, making them key to the future of social mobility. 对于英国的社会流动性而言,处理这个问题的重要性前所未有。由于经济正在向服务业转型,预计未来有五分之四的工作岗位将来自这些顶层职业,因此它们就成为未来社会流动性的关键。 Alan Milburn’s 2012 report into fair access to the professions showed 43% of barristers, 54% of chief executives, 51% of top medics and 54% of leading journalists attended private schools. Nationally, only 7% of children attend private schools. Alan Milburn 2012年关于公平职业机会的报告显示,43%的高级律师、54%的行政总监、51%的高级医生以及54%的新闻行业领袖念过私立学校。而全国范围内,现在只有7%的儿童在私立学校读书。 Research from the UCL Institute of Education and the University of Cambridge found that in a raw comparison, graduates who had attended private schools were 32% more likely to gain a “high-status” job – defined as the “higher managerial, administrative or professional” occupations – than state-school graduates from similar family types. 伦敦大学学院教育研究所和剑桥大学的研究发现,以来自相似家庭类型的大学毕业生做粗略比较,曾念过私立学校的比只念过公立学校的毕业生,找到“高等”工作的可能性要高出32%。该项研究将“高等”工作界定为“管理上、行政上或专业性上较高的”职业。 Even when accounting for other factors that could be driving this difference – such as a person’s grades in school, the university they attended, the course and qualification they got, or their age and gender – people who went to private school were still 8% more likely to access a high-status job after leaving university. 有一些其它因素也可能促成这一差异,比如在校成绩、所念大学、所修课程和专业资格、以及年龄与性别等。但即使将这些因素全都考虑在内,念过私立学校的学生大学毕业后获得高等工作的可能性仍然要高出8%。 A new report from the Sutton Trust and upReach charities has taken the analysis a step further. The report found that six-months after finishing university, private school graduates in high-status jobs are earning £670 per year more than those from the state sector in the same high-status positions, even after taking into account any differences in age, gender, university attended and degree obtained. Three years later, this gap has grown such that a private-school graduate is on average earning £2,198 per year more than the comparable state-school graduate. Sutton Trust和upReach两家慈善机构新近发布的一份报告对此问题做了进一步的分析。报告发现,大学毕业6个月后,即使将年龄、性别、所念大学及所获学位的差异都考虑进去,从事高等工作的私立学校毕业生,年收入也比从事同样职业的国立学校毕业生多出670磅。三年之后这种差距拉得更大,相比于国立学校毕业生,私立学校毕业生平均每年收入要多2198磅。 Elite firms look for ‘soft skills’ 精英公司想要“软技能” What is it about private schooling that causes this to happen? When it comes to getting a job and progressing up pay scales, there are always other factors apart from grades that are difficult to measure, such as self-confidence, assertiveness, ambition, determination or communication skills. These may differ between the average private and state school students and may be driving the difference. 念私立学校有什么不同,以至于出现上述差异呢?在找工作和提高收入等级时,除了成绩之外,总还有一些其它难以衡量的影响因素,比如自信、坚定、抱负、决心或沟通能力等。私立和公立学校学生一般在这些方面可能有些不同,并可能因此导致了上述差异。 This is consistent with other research from the Sutton Trust which has found that applicants to high-status jobs from less-privileged backgrounds lack self-confidence. Recent research from the Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission (SMCP) looking at recruitment to elite law, accountancy and financial services firms also identified that the differences in the non-academic skills of graduates from different school types played a key role in explaining different access to jobs and career progression. 这与Sutton Trust的另一项研究发现是一致的:出身弱势群体的人在申请高等工作时更加缺乏自信。社会流动性与儿童贫困委员会近期对法律、会计和金融服务等精英公司的招聘进行了研究,他们同样发现,在解释找工作和职业发展机会上的差异时,来自不同类型学校的毕业生在非学术技能上的差异是一个关键因素。 These elite firms look to recruit and promote “talent”. Their definitions incorporate the sort of non-academic skills that are not lacking in private school students, but can be lacking even among the most academically able state-school students. 这些精英公司想要招聘和提拔的是“才干之士”。在他们对“才干之士”的定义中,包含了私立学校学生从不缺乏的那些非学术技能,而在这些方面,即便是学术上最为杰出的公立学校学生也可能存在不足。 Gap in grades remains stark 成绩差距依然显著 There are policies that can help break down these barriers. The first requirement is to close the gap in attainment between different types of school. IFS research comparing the pay of state and privately educated people across all professions, found a 12% pay gap, half of which can be explained by prior attainment and the university subsequently attended. So, much of the gap is down to what happens in school. 有一些政策可以打破上述壁垒。第一个必须要做的,就是缩小不同类型学校在学业成就上的差距。英国财政研究学会对公立和私立学校毕业生在各类行业的薪酬水平进行了比较研究,发现其间存在12%的差距,该差距有一半源于早前的学业成就及随后所念的大学。因此,差距的很大一部分来自于在校经历。 The SMCP research also supports previous work that suggests attending “elite” universities and the course studied is becoming more and more important for access to top professions and higher pay. If we look at the difference in A-level attainment in the sort of “facilitating” subjects (such as maths, sciences and languages) that are preferred by the elite institutions, there is a suggestion that the gap between state and private school is narrowing. 前引社会流动性和儿童贫困委员会的研究结果也支持早前的一项研究,后者认为,接受“精英”大学教育及所学课程对于进入顶层职业和获得更高报酬的重要性与日俱增。精英机构更为偏爱那些使得进一步学习变得容易的“促进性”科目(比如数学、科学和语言等),如果我们去看中学高级水平考试中这些科目上的成绩差异,似乎有迹象表明,公立和私立学校之间的差距正在缩小。 Among 18-year-olds in 2004, 7.8% of state-school students had A*-B in three or more of these A-level subjects, compared with 21.6% of private school students. By 2010 the gap had closed slightly, largely due to a dip in independent schools' performance, but the proportion of state-school students attaining the grades required to access elite universities remains constant. 2004年的全部18岁学生中,有7.8%的公立学校学生在三门以上的中学高级水平考试“促进性”科目中得到了B或以上成绩,与之相比,私立学校学生则有21.6%。到了2010年,这一差距已略为减小,主要是因为独立学校的表现有所下滑,但取得精英大学最低录取成绩的公立学校学生比例并没有变化。   #79Unsurprisingly then, there is little evidence that the gap in attendance at elite universities has changed over time for students from comparable family backgrounds who attend state and private schools. The proportion of children who go to elite universities from the highest income group (which it is assumed includes private school attendees) was approximately 28% in 2010-11, compared to 12% for the next highest income group. However, this 16 percentage point gap is all but eliminated when researchers take into account how students did at A-level. 因此毫不奇怪,现在也没有什么证据表明家庭背景近似的公立和私立学校毕业生之间的精英大学录取差距有什么变化。2010-11年,最高收入群体的子女(假定包括私立学校入读者)就读精英大学的比例约为28%,与之相比,次高收入群体则为12%。不过,一旦研究人员将学生们在高级水平考试中的表现也考虑进来,这个16个百分点的差距也几乎完全不存在了。 More mentoring, earlier 更多、更早的辅导 So, the big question is how to improve the A-level results of students from state schools. After examining what can help predict better performance at A-level for bright but less advantaged students, research from Oxford University has suggested a series of policies to help boost performance by bright but less advantaged students. 因此,最大问题是如何提高公立学校学生的高级水平考试成绩。牛津大学一项研究考察了哪些因素有助于预测那些聪明但出身弱势的学生在高级水平考试中取得好成绩,并提出了帮助这一类学生改善表现的一系列政策建议。 These range from access to high-quality pre-school, daily homework, encouraging reading for pleasure, and educationally enriching activities outside of school, to greater guidance regarding the choice of subjects at GCSE and A-level likely to pay the highest future dividends in university access and beyond. 其中包括接受高质量学前教育的机会、每天做家庭作业、鼓励出于兴趣的阅读、开展具有教育意义的课外活动,还包括在普通中学教育证书和高级水平考试中为学生的科目选择提供更多指导,以帮助学生选择那些在未来的大学经历及以后人生中回报最大的科目。 The need for greater guidance, advice and mentoring for state-school pupils is also endorsed by the Sutton Trust research into recruitment for the financial services sector. These policy recommendations are now being implemented in a project that began in 2014 in which four major banks – Barclays, Deutsche Bank, HSBC and Lloyds – are providing “end-to-end” support to young people from state schools. They will get help to develop non-academic skills both at school and university and then receive mentoring while in the job. 公立学校学生需要更多的指导、建议和辅导,这一点也得到了Sutton Trust关于金融服务行业招聘的一项研究的支持。这些政策建议现已在一个始于2014年的项目中得到实施,四家大银行——巴克莱、德意志银行、汇丰以及劳埃德——通过该项目向公立学校的年轻人提供“从头到尾”的支持。这些年轻人在中学和大学时都能得到培养非学术技能方面的帮助,工作以后还能得到辅导。 These closer links between state schools and professions was also identified by Milburn, who suggested that work experience placements, internships and university sandwich-year courses can all be routes to improve the transition for state students from school, through university and into the “upper echelons” of British society. Milburn也发现了这种公立学校和职业之间的紧密联系,他建议通过工作经验职位、实习期以及带“三明治年”的大学课程【译注:英国大学一种学制,大学期间有一年为实习期,通常为第三年】等途径,来帮助公立学校学生更好地实现从中学到大学最后进入英国社会“梯次上层”的转化。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

读史笔记#15:瀑布与汲泵

瀑布与汲泵
辉格
2014年5月7日

人们在评价一个社会时,常把阶层间的流动性作为一个重要指标,认为适当的流动性是一个健康而有活力社会的应有特性,它可以为奋斗、进取和各种创造性活动提供动力,让身处下层者不至于丧失希望而产生反社会倾向,也让身居高位者不会过于安逸乃至腐化堕落。

在观察社会流动性时,一个最常用的指标,是当前的成功(其衡量标准无非是财富、权力、身份和影响力)人士中,有多少是出身寒微者,假如这个比例相当高,就说明出身寒微的孩子凭借天赋、努力和运气,很有希望跻身于比他父母所在的更高阶层,这样的社会就是富有流动性的,所谓美国梦,说的便是美国社会为此类进取和发达提供了远比其他社会更广阔的机会。

但其实我们还可以从另一个方面观察流动性,看看上一代的高地位人群中,其子女有多少跌落到了比他们父母更低的地位,正如向上爬升的机会是一种激励,向下跌落的风险同样也是一种激励,它激励身居高位者做出种种努力,设法让后代和自己一样享有优越条件和高地位;实际上,在许多传统社会,阶层间流动性往往更多的表现为后一种。

标签: | |

5153
瀑布与汲泵 辉格 2014年5月7日 人们在评价一个社会时,常把阶层间的流动性作为一个重要指标,认为适当的流动性是一个健康而有活力社会的应有特性,它可以为奋斗、进取和各种创造性活动提供动力,让身处下层者不至于丧失希望而产生反社会倾向,也让身居高位者不会过于安逸乃至腐化堕落。 在观察社会流动性时,一个最常用的指标,是当前的成功(其衡量标准无非是财富、权力、身份和影响力)人士中,有多少是出身寒微者,假如这个比例相当高,就说明出身寒微的孩子凭借天赋、努力和运气,很有希望跻身于比他父母所在的更高阶层,这样的社会就是富有流动性的,所谓美国梦,说的便是美国社会为此类进取和发达提供了远比其他社会更广阔的机会。 但其实我们还可以从另一个方面观察流动性,看看上一代的高地位人群中,其子女有多少跌落到了比他们父母更低的地位,正如向上爬升的机会是一种激励,向下跌落的风险同样也是一种激励,它激励身居高位者做出种种努力,设法让后代和自己一样享有优越条件和高地位;实际上,在许多传统社会,阶层间流动性往往更多的表现为后一种。 在[[A Farewell to Alms]]一书(中信出版社非常恶劣的将中文版书名定为《应该学点经济史》)中,经济史家格列高利·克拉克([[Gregory Clark]])通过对保存于教堂的数千份遗嘱的研究,发现中世纪英格兰社会的主要流动方式正是第二种,立遗嘱者的幸存子女数量与遗产数额高度相关,遗产最多的那组的子女数(4个)两倍于遗产最少的两组(1.8个),后者明显低于人口替代水平。 其他来源的研究也印证了这一点,在黑死病前后共四百年历史中,普通男性的平均存活儿子数在替代水平(1.0)附近波动,黑死病期间显著低于替代水平,而国王一级封臣的儿子数平均达1.8个,即便在黑死病高峰期也维持在替代水平之上;从土地拥有状况看,1270年代拥有土地的人,70多年后,其中最富裕者全部有后代继续保有土地,而最贫穷者仍有后代保有土地的比例只有1/3。 这些数字意味着,中古英格兰社会的流动结构是瀑布式的,贵族子弟一部分(通常是长子)继承了父辈的地位和主要财产,另一部分只继承少量财产和相应较低身份,逐级向下流动,最底层的家系则逐渐消亡,其地位被跌落下来的上层子弟所取代;在克拉克看来,这一模式主导着工业革命前的古代农业国家的社会流动。 然而,那些工业革命以来经历了工业化和城市化并实现人口转型([[demographic transition]])的社会,流动结构已完全颠倒了过来,在当今欧美国家,收入与社会地位越高、受教育越多,生育率越低,而且这一差距近年来仍在迅速扩大,在2000年,美国最高收入组的生育率是最低组的69%,到2010年已降至56%;在不少发达国家,教育程度最高的女性中,一半以上完全不生孩子。 这样一来,这些社会的上层成了一个人口黑洞,而与此同时,人们努力向上爬的动机并没有削弱,于是社会流动结构变成了汲泵式的,其长期效果是,上层不断将下层中的精英分子筛选泵吸出来,随后又在遗传意义上加以消灭,这样的局面在人类历史乃至整个生物历史上都是前所未有的,它完全逆转了对遗传特性的选择压力。 这样的逆转,对于我们社会的价值取向、文化氛围和制度发展,将意味着什么呢?通过消除原先那个稳定的顶层,它或许会(或者已经?)削弱社会的保守倾向,因为顶层原本只有流出很少流入,起着文化和传统的积淀作用,而逆转之后,积淀将发生在底层,这将导致一个死气沉沉、越来越看不到希望的、其规模却在不断膨胀的底层吗? 这一逆转,也意味着社会失去了一个财富的自动再分配机制,原先上层的向下流动也伴随着财产的分割,即便长子继承制也不能完全阻止财富向下流动,而逆转之后,上层所积聚的财富不再随继承分割而扩散了,相反,财富会越来越多地堆积到上层,但同时,越来越多的富人不再将全部遗产留给子女,这样,积淀在顶层的财富将越来越多的转移到各种信托基金和法人机构的控制之下。 这些只是容易看见的,更多更重大的变化,恐怕只能等待时间慢慢将它揭晓了。  
[饭文]高考折射出的身份焦虑

高考折射出的身份焦虑
辉格
2012年6月12日

每年高考,家长好像都比孩子更紧张,而且表现的一年比一年夸张,拥挤在大门口守候已是稀松平常,为调整状态提前一两个月到宾馆开“备考房”,全家出动当保镖护卫孩子赴考场,迟到了跪求门卫,甚至对附近马路实施“交通管制”,“我们家孩子今天高考”俨然已成为要求邻居和市民给予特权待遇的响亮理由。

有人说,家长对高考如此紧张,是因为中国的社会上升通道狭窄,且多半已被特权阶层垄断,留给普通大众的进身之阶只有高考这座独木桥了,而且,诸多个人发展机会中,唯有高考算是机会较均等(more...)

标签: | | | |
3532
高考折射出的身份焦虑 辉格 2012年6月12日 每年高考,家长好像都比孩子更紧张,而且表现的一年比一年夸张,拥挤在大门口守候已是稀松平常,为调整状态提前一两个月到宾馆开“备考房”,全家出动当保镖护卫孩子赴考场,迟到了跪求门卫,甚至对附近马路实施“交通管制”,“我们家孩子今天高考”俨然已成为要求邻居和市民给予特权待遇的响亮理由。 有人说,家长对高考如此紧张,是因为中国的社会上升通道狭窄,且多半已被特权阶层垄断,留给普通大众的进身之阶只有高考这座独木桥了,而且,诸多个人发展机会中,唯有高考算是机会较均等、程序较公平的;这一看法抓住了高考的社会功能,和古代科举制一样,高考确实是保持社会流动性的一条相对公平的上升通道。 但这并未解释为何人们会如此紧张,通道的狭窄、机会的渺茫,未必是紧张和焦虑的理由;80年代的社会流动性更差,当时所有人都被牢牢束缚在计划体制和户籍制度中,改变职业、经商创业、从农村迁居城市、移民出国,几乎没有可能,高考是普通人改变命运的唯一机会,况且,当时的高考录取率比现在低得多,这座独木桥远比现在拥挤,但那时考生的父母却没现在这么紧张。 其实,假如改变命运的机会过于渺茫,考中进士就像彩票中头奖,人们反倒会将之视为可遇而不可求的幸运,不会太为它而操心和焦虑;假如你所在社区中隔好几年才有一个幸运儿出人头地,你多半不会觉得自己错过了什么,相反,假如从小与你玩泥巴的孩子现在一个个都出息了,发达了,有头有脸了,宝马别墅了,你才会觉得很紧张。 所以,如今社会普遍存在的紧张和焦虑,恰恰是过去二三十年社会流动性剧增的结果,原本僵化的社会阶层结构瓦解了,动荡之中,人们需要重新寻找自己的社会定位,此时机会之门似乎都开放着,全看谁更眼明手快、身手敏捷、拼抢积极了。 这情形让人想起维多利亚时代,中世纪西欧封建制度下,等级森严,社会流动性很低,平民们反倒安于自己的地位和命运,工业革命后,各种新职业新阶层迅猛崛起,新贵大量涌现,原有等级结构再难维系,此时人人都在为自己的身份和地位而焦虑。 旧贵族要标榜他们的古老荣耀,新贵要证明自己配得上刚刚挤进去的那个上流社会,中产阶级也努力成为合格的绅士淑女,这一集体焦虑最终推动形成了严谨、刻板、还时常有些虚荣和伪善的“维多利亚道德”的社会规范,这在当时的文学特别是狄更斯的作品中,被刻画的淋漓尽致。 无论你喜不喜欢,身份焦虑都是推动社会发展的巨大动力,它塑造着人们的价值观和消费偏好,并重新确立社会关系和交往规范;为了在一个更高的地位上立足,证明自己配得上新的身份,人们努力工作挣钱,拼命储蓄,使劲消费,正因为人们对子女未来身份要求更高,也因为他们觉得必须给孩子最好的东西才对得起自己的新身份,他们才大喊养不起孩子了,尽管收入已比老一辈增加了好多倍,而且越是高收入者喊的越响。 理解这种身份焦虑,进而观察它如何驱动人们作出反应,有助于我们看清他们的经济行为,为何一方面拼命储蓄,而在某些消费项目上却毫不迟疑的一掷千金?为何拥有一套房产如此重要?为何女性择偶如此看重物质?为何供养能力显著提高却不肯生孩子了?简单一句“虚荣心”会让你错过重要的东西,任何虚荣,仅当有关文化价值尚未确立时才是虚荣的,价值一旦确立,它就是风格、品位和传统了。
[微言]云世袭 vs 身份焦虑

【2012-06-09】

@当时我就震惊了: 这是天涯上一个网友发的帖子,看了之后觉得真的无语!!(转)

@章立凡:[高考已成拜物教]试问还有哪个国家

@简直: 云世袭把船票瓜分尽净,底层为最后一根稻草大打出手。问题不在高考,高考是古代中国的伟大发明中,惟一一个还在为这社会努力减压的。

@黄章晋ster: 云世袭——年度闪光。

@whigzhou: 把高考换成其他某些事也差不多,我看主要还是不把孩子当人

@whigzhou: 船票说根本站不住脚,我们那时候高考(more...)

标签: | | | |
4348
【2012-06-09】 @当时我就震惊了: 这是天涯上一个网友发的帖子,看了之后觉得真的无语!!(转) @章立凡:[高考已成拜物教]试问还有哪个国家 @简直: 云世袭把船票瓜分尽净,底层为最后一根稻草大打出手。问题不在高考,高考是古代中国的伟大发明中,惟一一个还在为这社会努力减压的。 @黄章晋ster: 云世袭——年度闪光。 @whigzhou: 把高考换成其他某些事也差不多,我看主要还是不把孩子当人 @whigzhou: 船票说根本站不住脚,我们那时候高考独木桥远比现在更狭窄且值钱,也没见过这么紧张的,同学中有父母来给孩子送水的都会被耻笑 @whigzhou: 高考焦虑是子女培养焦虑的一部分,而它们和全家三代凑钱给儿子买房一样,是这个时代身份焦虑的一部分,是社会流动性剧增的后果;假如地位上升的只是极少数幸运儿,就像中头彩的,大家不会有什么焦虑,可要是发现身边原本和自己差不多的人一个个都发了,那就紧张了,沉不住气了,要拼命了…… @whigzhou: 这一点上其实和维多利亚时代有点像,当时的人身份焦虑都很严重,在狄更斯作品里表现的很清楚,社会阶层结构动荡期大概都是如此。 @whigzhou: 高焦虑期,也正是各种奢侈品、格调、主义、宗教、偶像的畅销期,各位想兜售点什么的别错过了