含有〈犯罪〉标签的文章(9)

Pinker式乐观主义

【2016-08-17】

@whigzhou: 《危险、担忧与公共政策》 某类危险的死亡几率越高,就越“值得担心”,也越值得在公共政策上得到优先处理?

@whigzhou: Pinker式乐观主义就是出于类似的无知,仅以死亡率/谋杀率之类简单数字衡量公共安全,忽略了安全问题的很多重要方面,举个简单例子:A/B两个城市谋杀率同为千分之五,A的谋杀案均匀分布于全市,B的全部集中于其第9区,两市市民对公共安全的感觉完全不同,而且这种不同十(more...)

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【2016-08-17】 @whigzhou: 《危险、担忧与公共政策》 某类危险的死亡几率越高,就越“值得担心”,也越值得在公共政策上得到优先处理? @whigzhou: Pinker式乐观主义就是出于类似的无知,仅以死亡率/谋杀率之类简单数字衡量公共安全,忽略了安全问题的很多重要方面,举个简单例子:A/B两个城市谋杀率同为千分之五,A的谋杀案均匀分布于全市,B的全部集中于其第9区,两市市民对公共安全的感觉完全不同,而且这种不同十分合理。 @whigzhou: 再极端一点,假如B市的谋杀案全部属于黑帮火拼,那么该市良民就会(十分合理的)觉得这个城市非常安全 @whigzhou: 这就是为什么面向非特定人群的恐怖攻击,尽管造成的伤亡对社会总他杀率的贡献率很低,但仍足以引起恐慌,并值得被当作重大安全问题对待,的理由所在
[译文]弗格森的一半黑人男青年不见了

Half Of Ferguson’s Young African-American Men Are Missing
弗格森的半数非洲裔年轻男子不见了

作者:Adam Ozimek @ 2015-03-18
译者:bear
校对:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy)
来源:Forbes,http://www.forbes.com/sites/modeledbehavior/2015/03/18/half-of-fergusons-young-african-american-men-are-missing/

Michael Brown’s tragic death, violent protests including the shootings of police officers, a Justice Department investigation describing a pattern and practice of disc(more...)

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Half Of Ferguson's Young African-American Men Are Missing 弗格森的半数非洲裔年轻男子不见了 作者:Adam Ozimek @ 2015-03-18 译者:bear 校对:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy) 来源:Forbes,http://www.forbes.com/sites/modeledbehavior/2015/03/18/half-of-fergusons-young-african-american-men-are-missing/ Michael Brown’s tragic death, violent protests including the shootings of police officers, a Justice Department investigation describing a pattern and practice of discrimination in the Ferguson police department, and the resignation of six city officials, including the police chief, have focused attention on racial divisions in this St. Louis suburb.  The Justice Department investigation alleges that the lack of diversity in the Ferguson police department, only 4 of 54 commissioned officers are African American compared to 67% of the town’s population, undermines the community’s trust of law enforcement. 圣路易斯郡郊区小镇弗格森的种族分裂近来一直极受关注,起因包括一系列事件:麦克·布朗悲剧性的死亡,暴力示威、包括对警察的枪击,司法部调查认为弗格森警察局存在歧视惯例和行为,包括警长在内的6名市政官员辞职。司法部的调查结果声称,全社区对执法的信任度受损,是由于弗格森警察局内缺乏种族多样性:54名现任警官中仅有四名非洲裔美国人,而该镇67%的人口是非洲裔。 An important but unreported indicator of Ferguson’s dilemma is that half of young African American men are missing from the community.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, while there are 1,182 African American women between the ages of 25 and 34 living in Ferguson, there are only 577 African American men in this age group.  In other words there are more than two young black women for each young black man in Ferguson.  The problem of missing black men extends to other age groups.  More than 40% of black men in both the 20 to 24 and 35 to 54 age groups in Ferguson are missing. 关于弗格森困境,一个重要但未被报道的指标是,这一社区中有一半的黑人年轻男性消失无踪了。根据美国人口统计局的数据,有1182名25至34岁的黑人女性生活在弗格森,但同年龄段的黑人男性只有557名。换句话说,弗格森的黑人年轻人中,每名男性都对应着2名以上女性。黑人男性缺席的问题也出现在别的年龄段。20岁至24岁段和35岁至54岁段都有超过40%的黑人男性不见了。 It is worth noting that there are approximately equal numbers of African American boys and girls, under the age of 20, in Ferguson (2,332 boys and 2,341 girls).  What has happened to young African American men in Ferguson?  There are several possibilities.  First, the Census counts only the civilian population, and excludes individuals serving in the Armed Forces.  Second, tragically, some of these young men have already died.  Third, Census figures do not include individuals who are incarcerated at the time of the survey.  Finally, the Census Bureau may undercount homeless men, men who are marginally attached to the community, and men who are primarily engaged in criminal behavior. 值得注意的是,黑人男孩和女孩的数量几乎是相等的,在20岁以下年龄段,弗格森有2332名黑人男孩和2341名黑人女孩。弗格森的年轻黑人男性到底去哪了?有几种可能。第一,统计局的数据仅仅包括了平民,不包括军中服役的。第二,十分悲惨,其中一些年轻男性已经死了。第三,人口统计数据没有包括调查时正在服刑的人员。最后,人口统计局低估了流浪汉的数量,这些男性生活在社会边缘,大多数都涉及犯罪活动。 While the problem of missing African American men is especially severe in Ferguson, young black men are absent from most U.S. cities.  In the neighboring cities of East St. Louis, IL and St. Louis, about 38% and 24% of African American men age 25 to 34 are absent from their communities, respectively.  On average, about 18 percent of young African American men are absent from large cities.  (This calculation is based on the combined population of 33 cities with the largest African American populations, home to about one quarter of African Americans in the U.S.)  In contrast, outside of large cities only about 4% of young black men are absent from their communities.  The challenges posed by an absence of black men in Ferguson are problems faced primarily by larger cities. 尽管黑人男性缺席问题在弗格森特别严重,但在大多数美国城市中,年轻黑人男性消失无踪的情况都存在。在伊利诺斯州的东圣路易斯市和圣路易斯市两个临近城市中,社区里分别大约有38%和24%的25至34岁黑人男性消失了。平均而言,大城市中大约有18%的年轻黑人男性缺席。(这个结果是根据33个黑人人口最多的城市计算出来的,覆盖了大约美国四分之一的非洲裔人口)作为对比,在大城市之外,只有4%的年轻黑人男性不在其社区之内。弗格森这种因年轻黑人男性缺席而造成的挑战,主要是较大城市面临的问题。 Outside of large cities the absence of young African American men is explained by gender differences in mortality rates and military service.  Almost two percent of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 34 are in the active military, and about 85% are men, so military service can explain a two percent shortfall in the civilian black male population. 除开大城市以外,其他地方的年轻黑人男性缺席现象可以用死亡率和军队服役上的性别差异来解释。25至34岁的美国黑人中,有大约2%在军中服役,其中约85%是男性,所以军队服役状况能够解释2%的男性黑人平民的数量差额。 Vital Statistics data indicate that about 96% of African American men will survive to the age of 30 compared to 98% of women.  Shorter life expectancies can explain why an additional two percent of young African American men are missing.  After adjustments for gender differences in mortality rates and military service, 14% of African American men age 25 to 34 are missing from our largest cities, and 47% are missing from Ferguson. 人口动态统计数据显示,大约有96%的美国黑人男性能活到30岁,而女性则有98%。男性相对更短的预期寿命可以再解释两个百分点的年轻黑人男性缺席现象。基于死亡率和军中服役状况上的性别差异进行调整后,我国大城市中有14%的25至34岁的黑人男性缺席,而弗格森则达47%。 Incarceration is the primary reason why young black men are missing from our largest cities.  According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics about 9.4% of African American men age 25 to 34 are incarcerated, compared to 0.6% of African American women.  However, an incredibly high incarceration rate would be necessary to account for all of Ferguson’s missing young black men.  Ferguson’s challenge is likely the result of a combination of problems including incarceration, criminal behavior, homelessness and substance abuse. 服刑是我国大城市中年轻黑人男性缺席的主要原因。根据司法统计局的数据,大约9.4%的25至34岁美国黑人男性正在服刑,而黑人女性则只有0.6%。然而,只有高到令人难以置信的服刑率,才能够解释弗格森年轻黑人男性缺席的总量。弗格森面临的挑战可能是一系列麻烦综合导致的结果,包括服刑、犯罪行为、无家可归和滥用药物。 It will be difficult for Ferguson to prosper economically as long as half of young black men are absent from the community.  According to Census data 60% of households with children in Ferguson are headed by women and 48% of these female-headed households are below the poverty line. 只要社区中始终有一半的年轻黑人男性不见踪影,弗格森的经济发展就会很困难。根据人口统计数据,在弗格森,60%的有孩子家庭由妇女当家,而这些由妇女当家的家庭中又有48%生活在贫困线以下。 Although the Justice Department views the racial disparity among Ferguson’s police officers as a potential cause of racial unrest in the community, the dearth of black police officers is also a consequence of the socioeconomic problems facing Ferguson’s African American community.  While there have been important changes in the past few decades, law enforcement is an occupation disproportionately represented by younger men.  According to the Census Bureau over 85% of police officers in the U.S. are men and only 13% are age 55 and above. 尽管司法部认为弗格森警察构成中的种族不平衡是该社区内种族矛盾的潜在原因之一,但黑人警察不足也是弗格森的黑人社区所面临的社会经济问题的结果。尽管在过去几十年有一些重大的改变,但执法行业依旧不成比例地由年轻男性主导。根据人口统计局,超过85%的美国警察是男性,只有13%是55岁以上的。 As Ferguson strives to achieve greater racial diversity in its police force, one of the first problems civic leaders will face is a shortage of young African American men from Ferguson who can fill positions in the police department.  Many of the socioeconomic problems that have caused these young men to be absent from their community will also make it difficult, if not impossible, for these men to pursue a career in law enforcement. 弗格森正在努力强化其警力配置中的种族多样性,但是,市政领导人将要面临的一个头等难题是:弗格森没有足够的年轻黑人男性来充任警察局的岗位。导致这些年轻人在各自社区中缺席的社会经济问题,同样也会使这些男性很难去从事执法行业,如果不是不可能的话。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

静息心率

【2016-06-11】

@北京大学出版社 黑手党杀手喜欢装出一副若无其事的样子,出其不意地对目标发动攻击,并且大多是从背后出手,主要也是为了避免发生正面冲突。这也是为什么刽子手曾经会佩戴面罩,以及为什么蒙面者会比其他人作出更多的暴力行为。《暴力:一种微观社会学理论》书摘一 http://t.cn/R5M6G6B

@黄章晋ster: 「只要能够获得情绪上的支配权,就能获得身体上的支配权。例如其中一方在对方毫无还手之力时仍然对其大打出手。一方因其心跳超过每分钟200次而动弹不得,另一方则将(more...)

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【2016-06-11】 @北京大学出版社 黑手党杀手喜欢装出一副若无其事的样子,出其不意地对目标发动攻击,并且大多是从背后出手,主要也是为了避免发生正面冲突。这也是为什么刽子手曾经会佩戴面罩,以及为什么蒙面者会比其他人作出更多的暴力行为。《暴力:一种微观社会学理论》书摘一 http://t.cn/R5M6G6B @黄章晋ster: 「只要能够获得情绪上的支配权,就能获得身体上的支配权。例如其中一方在对方毫无还手之力时仍然对其大打出手。一方因其心跳超过每分钟200次而动弹不得,另一方则将其心跳维持在每分钟14 @whigzhou: 年初有份对巴西街头帮派的研究据说显示了静息心率与青少年暴力之间的关系 http://t.cn/R5xquwG @whigzhou: 搜了一下,90年代已经有相关研究,见Fiona Brookman: Understanding Homicide(2005) p.65 http://t.cn/R5xqsxf @whigzhou: 所以音乐和舞蹈可能也是一种控制心率(或肾上腺素的其他负面效果)的方法 http://weibo.com/5655200015/DfcFL4iON @whigzhou: 我记得有些印第安部落有着残忍虐待俘虏并以此取乐的习惯,可能也是在训练战士克服与敌人面对面时的情绪波动。 @innesfry: 低静息心率已被证明是与反社会行为和犯罪最相关的生理特征。邮包炸弹客卡辛斯基的静息心率是54。低静息心率对反社会行为的预测能力跟SAT分数对大学GPA的预测能力差不多  
[译文]巴尔的摩悲剧,谁之过?

Whose Fault is Baltimore
巴尔的摩骚乱谁之过?

时间:@ 2015-4-30
译者:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny)
校对:龟海海
来源:The Burning Platform,http://www.theburningplatform.com/2015/04/30/whose-fault-is-baltimore/

I’ve seen the liberal lying MSM pondering how WE could allow the riots, looting, burning and lawlessness to happen, as if it is our collective fault. Obama stands before his teleprompter and pontificates about the need for us to end the poverty that supposedly led to Purge Night in Charm City.

我看到那些满嘴跑火车的自由派主流媒体成天思考我们(又被代表)怎么能容忍暴动、抢劫、纵火和无法无天,就好像这是整个城市的错。奥巴马站在他的提词器前武断地宣称消除贫困的必要,似乎这贫困将会导致“净化之夜”在这魅力之城上演。【译注:电影《净化》中,未来的美国变成了一个极权的警察国家。每年的3月21日晚7点到次日早7点被称作净化之夜,在此期间所有的暴力犯罪都是合法的。

That term cracks me up. The city has so much charm, its football team once snuck out of town overnight and headed to Indianapolis. It has so much charm its baseball team was forced to play a game with no fans in the stands.

这情景让我反胃。这座城市是如此有魅力,它的橄榄球队曾半夜溜出城跑到印第安纳波利斯去;它如此有魅力,它的棒球队曾被迫在没有一个球迷的球场上打比赛。

I think most people can agree that Freddie Gray, a petty drug dealer, was killed in police custody for the crime of looking suspicious. The policemen who killed him d(more...)

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Whose Fault is Baltimore 巴尔的摩骚乱谁之过? 时间:@ 2015-4-30 译者:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny) 校对:龟海海 来源:The Burning Platform,http://www.theburningplatform.com/2015/04/30/whose-fault-is-baltimore/ I’ve seen the liberal lying MSM pondering how WE could allow the riots, looting, burning and lawlessness to happen, as if it is our collective fault. Obama stands before his teleprompter and pontificates about the need for us to end the poverty that supposedly led to Purge Night in Charm City. 我看到那些满嘴跑火车的自由派主流媒体成天思考我们(又被代表)怎么能容忍暴动、抢劫、纵火和无法无天,就好像这是整个城市的错。奥巴马站在他的提词器前武断地宣称消除贫困的必要,似乎这贫困将会导致“净化之夜”在这魅力之城上演。【译注:电影《净化》中,未来的美国变成了一个极权的警察国家。每年的3月21日晚7点到次日早7点被称作净化之夜,在此期间所有的暴力犯罪都是合法的。】 That term cracks me up. The city has so much charm, its football team once snuck out of town overnight and headed to Indianapolis. It has so much charm its baseball team was forced to play a game with no fans in the stands. 这情景让我反胃。这座城市是如此有魅力,它的橄榄球队曾半夜溜出城跑到印第安纳波利斯去;它如此有魅力,它的棒球队曾被迫在没有一个球迷的球场上打比赛。 I think most people can agree that Freddie Gray, a petty drug dealer, was killed in police custody for the crime of looking suspicious. The policemen who killed him deserve to go to jail for murder. As usual, the powers that be circled the wagons and intended to exonerate the hero first responders. 我想大部分人都会同意,Freddie Gray——一个小混混毒贩子——仅仅因为看起来可疑而被捕并在羁押期间遭到杀害。那些杀害他的警察理应为谋杀而坐牢。同往常一样,权贵们对此事会引起的风波早有准备,并且打算赦免那英雄的第一响应者【first responder,指突发状况时首先到场的警察、医护人员等。】。 The people of Baltimore had a right to be pissed. They had a right to protest. They didn’t have a right to burn businesses and cars. They didn’t have the right to riot, loot, and injure others. 巴尔的摩的人们有权感到愤怒,他们有权游行示威。但他们没有权利去焚烧商场和汽车,他们没权利暴乱、抢劫和伤害他人。 It is the police department created and controlled for decades by Democratic progressive politicians that has committed the atrocities against the people who have been electing these progressives year after year. Baltimore has a corrupt, reckless, out of control police department enabled by a crooked and incompetent Baltimore politicians. The rap sheet for Baltimore’s finest is long: 由民主党的进步派政客创建并控制了数十年的警察局屡屡犯下暴行,而人们年复一年地把这些进步派选上台。巴尔的摩有个腐败的、厚颜无耻的、失控的警察局,全靠一群腐败无能的政客得以运转。巴警察局干过的好事可不少:
  • Police commissioner Ed Norris was sent to prison on corruption charges (2004)
  • 2004年警察局长Ed Norris因为腐败而于锒铛入狱。
  • Two detectives were sentenced to 454 years in prison for dealing drugs (2005)
  • 2005年两位警探因为贩毒而被判刑454年。
  • An officer was dismissed after being videotaped verbally abusing a 14-year-old and then failing to file a report on his use of force against the same teenager (2011)
  • 2011年一位警官对一名14岁少年言语虐待并被拍摄下来,而后他无法书面解释为何对同一位少年使用武力,最终被解职。
  • An officer was been fired for sexually abusing a minor (2014)
  • 2014年,一位警官因为性虐待未成年人而被开除。
  • The city paid a quarter-million-dollar settlement to a man police illegally arrested for the non-crime of recording them at work with his mobile phone.
  • 巴市曾付过一笔25万美元的庭外和解费,只因警员们非法拘捕一位拿手机拍摄他们执法的男士。
The cries of racism and white oppression ring hollow. It’s a tired storyline. Facts are always inconvenient to race baiters with an agenda to extract more money from whites with a guilty conscience and the inability or unwillingness to speak the truth. Let’s examine some facts about good old Charm City, USA. 对种族主义和白人迫害的哭诉是空洞无力的,这也是陈词滥调了。对种族迫害论者而言,事实真相往往不合时宜,他们总是试图通过白人的负罪感、在说出真相上的无能或不情愿,来攫取更多的钱财。让我们来看看巴尔的摩这传说中的“魅力之城”都有哪些丰功伟绩吧。
  • The fine citizens of this metropolis have not elected a Republican as mayor since 1963, before the War on Poverty began. That mayor’s 4 year term is the only interruption in Democrat rule since 1947. They have had Democrat control for 64 of the last 68 years, and sole control for the last 48 years straight.
  • 自打1963年起,巴市的良民们就没有选出过哪怕一位共和党的市长,那时“向贫穷开战”还未开始【War on Poverty,指美国第三十六任总统林登·贝恩斯·约翰逊推行的一系列福利法案。】从1947年起,市长的4年任期限制就是民主党统治的仅有停顿。68年间,民主党主政了64年,过去的48年民主党更是大权独揽。
  • Their mayor is black. Their previous mayor, Sheila Dixon, was black. She was convicted of embezzlement in 2010 and couldn’t finish her term. They had a white mayor (current Democratic Presidential hopeful Martin O’Malley) for eight years. The mayor before him was black.
  • 他们的现任市长是黑人。他们的前任市长,Shiela Dixon,是黑人。她因为在2010年挪用公款而未能干满任期。他们曾有过一个干了八年的白人市长(如今民主党的热门总统竞选人Martin O’Malley)。在他之前,市长也是黑人。
  • Their City Council consists of 15 members. All fifteen are Democrats. The Council President is black. Democrats have had control of legislation in Baltimore for the last 50 years. Every program, policy, initiative, or school curriculum that exists in Baltimore was enacted by liberal Democrats.
  • 他们的市议会由15名成员组成,15人全是民主党。市议会的主席是黑人。过去50年,民主党控制了巴市的立法,巴尔的摩的每一个项目、政策、动议,甚至学校课程,都是由自由派民主党人制定颁布。
  • The Police Commissioner is black. Approximately 50% of the police force is black.
  • 警察局长是黑人。大约一半的警察也是黑人。
  • The School Superintendent is black, along with the School Board. The district has an annual budget of $1.32 billion to teach 84,000 kids. The Baltimore school system ranks second among the nation’s 100 largest school districts in how much it spent per pupil at $15,700 per student. Only NYC spends more. Only two thirds of students graduate high school, despite this high level of spending.
  • 校监是黑人,全体校董会也是黑人。学区每年拥有13.2亿美元预算作为84000个孩子的教育经费。在全美最大的100个学区中,巴尔的摩的教学系统花在每个学生身上的经费位列第二,平均每人高达15700美元,只有纽约市花得比这更多。尽管有如此高的花销,只有三分之二的学生从高中毕业。
  • The average SAT scores of Baltimore City public school students are: 379 in Reading; 376 in Math; 381 in Writing. These are the scores of the best of the best in Baltimore schools who actually think they should get into college. The average scores in the country, which still suck, are around 500. Students with these scores have about a 15% chance of graduating college. This is the ROI you get after spending $188,000 per student over their 12 year academic career.
  • 巴市公立学校学生的SAT成绩平均为:阅读379分,数学376分,作文381分。这还是那些自认应该进入大学的顶尖学生的分数。全国的平均分,虽然低但也有500左右。有着这成绩的学生有15%的机会从大学毕业。这就是在一个学生12年的学习生涯中花掉188000美元的投资回报率。
  • The population of Baltimore is 623,000 and 63% are black. Median household income is $41,000, with 24% living below the poverty line. The home ownership rate is 48%. The percentage of college graduates is 27%.
  • 巴市有623000人口,其中63%是黑人。每户人家的年平均收入是41000美元,24%的家庭生活在贫困线以下。48%的人拥有自己的房屋。只有27%的人是大学毕业生。
  • The population was 950,000 in 1950, so it has fallen by 35% in the last 65 years. The population was 24% black in 1950. Decades of liberal Democrat policies drove most of the white population out of the city.
  • 1950年的人口总数是950000,过去65年降低了35%。1950年黑人占人口总数的24%。数十年来民主党的政策将大多数白人赶出了这座城市。
  • Baltimore’s violent crime rate is 370% higher than the U.S. rate. They have over 200 murders, 300 rapes, 3,600 robberies, 4,600 assaults, 7,800 burglaries, and 22,000 thefts per year. These are all 2 to 4 times the U.S. averages per 100,000 people.
  • 巴市的暴力犯罪率是比全美水平高出3.7倍。这里一年发生200起命案、300起强奸案、3600起抢劫案、4600次人身伤害、7800起入室抢劫和22000起盗窃案。每一项都是全美每十万人平均犯案率的二至四倍。
  • Over 35% of all Baltimore residents get food stamps. Over 85% of the kids get free breakfasts and lunches at school. More than 60% of Baltimore residents are receiving some form of government assistance.
  • 超过35%的巴市居民领取食物救济券。超过85%的小孩在学校领取免费的早晨和午餐。全市超过60%的居民领取政府发放的某种救济。
  • Baltimore’s welfare paradise is paid for by outrageously high taxes. It’s income tax rate of 3.2% is on top of the state rate of 4.75%. It’s property tax rate is more than double the other counties in Maryland. The sales tax rate is 6%. Corporations pay an income tax rate of 8.25%.
  • 巴市的这种福利天堂是靠高得离谱的税收支撑的。个人所得税在州税率4.75%的基础上额外多收3.2%。。它的财产税比马里兰州其他郡的两倍还高。它的消费税为6%。公司要付的所得税为8.25%。
  • The percentage of out of wedlock births to black women in Baltimore exceeds 72%. Baltimore and Detroit are the two cities with populations over 600,000 with the highest percentage of single parent households – 59% to 61%.
  • 在巴市,黑人妇女婚外生育的比例高达72%。巴尔的摩和底特律都有超过60万的人口,它们的单亲家庭比例也是全美最高——分别为59%和61%。
  • The reported unemployment rate for Baltimore is 8.2%, one of the highest in the country. In reality, 42% of the working age population is not working. Young black men between the ages of 20 and 24 have a reported unemployment rate of 37%. But in reality, it is north of 60%. The number of employees in 1990 totaled 475,000. Today they total 365,000, down 23%.
  • 据报道,巴市的失业率为8.2%,为全国失业率最高的城市之一。事实上,42%的适龄人口都没有工作。20至24岁的黑人男性失业率据报道为37%,事实上远远不止60%。1990年,雇员的总数为475000,今天这个数字为365000,下降了23%。
It doesn’t take a village to raze, burn, and loot a village. It just takes 50 years of liberal economic and social policies. Of course the liberal media, liberal politicians, and liberal voters don’t think anyone should be blamed for the disaster that Baltimore and every other Democrat controlled urban shithole (Detroit, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Atlanta, Cleveland) have become over the last 50 years. 毁掉一个村子无须全村出力【编注:此处取典于一句非洲谚语“It takes a village to raise a child”,意思是为孩子成长提供文化环境的是整个社区,而非仅仅是个体家庭】,50年的自由派经济和社会政策足矣。当然,自由派媒体、政客和选民并不认为谁应该为过去50年巴尔的摩以及其他(底特律、费城、圣路易斯、亚特兰大、克利夫兰)民主党控制下的都市粪坑里所发生的灾难而受责难。 Community organizer Adam Jackson, living up to the standards of Organizer in Chief Obama, declared that in Baltimore “the Democrats and the Republicans have both failed.” At least progressive community organizers have a sense of humor. How can Republicans have failed if the mayors and City Council have been 100% Democrat since the mid 1960s? I wonder how many Republicans were among the youths burning, looting, and destroying the city this week. 社区组织者Adam Jackson倒是挺合奥巴马老大对组织者的口味,他宣称在巴尔的摩“民主党和共和党都是失败者”。至少这些人还挺幽默的,当巴尔的摩的市长和市议会从60年代中期开始便全是民主党人,共和党的失败倒是从何说起?我倒是想知道在这周的青年纵火、抢劫和破坏活动中有几个共和党参与。 No Republican, and definitely no conservative, is responsible for the poverty, crime, educational failure, and disintegration of this lesson in Democratic rule. Baltimore’s police department is the product of the progressive wing of the Democratic party, enabled by black identity politics. This is entirely a left-wing Democratic creation. They get all the credit for what Baltimore has become. The mayor of Baltimore is an incompetent bumbling fool. These corrupt, arrogant left wing boobs are incapable of running a school system, police department, or economy. 没有共和党,当然更没有保守主义,这便是贫穷、犯罪、教育失败和民主党秩序崩溃的原因。巴尔的摩警察局就是民主党进步派的造物,奉行的是黑人本位政策。这完全是左翼民主党人的杰作,巴尔的摩的今天全拜其所赐。巴尔的摩市长就是个无能蠢货。这些腐败的、自以为是左翼笨蛋根本无力让教育系统、警察局或是城市经济正常运转。 They know how to play race politics to get elected. They know how to increase taxes on the few remaining producers in order to redistribute it to their black voters. They know how to destroy businesses and jobs. They know how to create a welfare mindset among black people, enslaving them in poverty, dependency, and ignorance. Blacks have suffered the most from Democratic black rule. 他们知道怎么打好种族这张牌来当选。他们知道如何对仅存的几个企业征税,好把财富重新分配给他们的黑人选民。他们知道怎么毁掉商业和工作岗位。他们知道怎么让黑人对福利上瘾,用贫穷、依赖和无知去奴役他们。民主党的“黑人统治”给黑人带来的伤害恰恰最大。 These riots will result in less businesses, less jobs and less taxes for the city. Blacks will be hurt the most, but they will continue to vote for Democrats. Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result. Believing liberal welfare policies will fix the problems created by liberal welfare policies is insane. Liberalism is a disease of the brain and has infected a vast swath of America, especially in urban enclaves across the land. 这些暴乱将让这座城市的商业、工作岗位和税收越来越少。黑人将最受伤,但他们还是会给民主党投票。疯狂的市民总是种下同样的因却期盼着不同的果。相信自由派的福利政策会解决自由派福利政策带来的问题,这就是疯狂。自由主义是一种观念疾病,并已经感染了一大帮美国人,尤其是那些在城市孤岛里的居民。 Baltimore and every other Democrat controlled urban enclave in America are destined for decline, destruction, and civic decay. Baltimore cannot be fixed by spending more money on welfare programs. The country has spent $22 trillion on anti-poverty programs since LBJ declared his war on poverty. 巴尔的摩和其他民主党控制下的城市孤岛注定会衰败、毁灭、民生凋敝。靠在福利项目上花更多钱救不了巴尔的摩。自林登·约翰逊总统宣布“向贫穷开战”以来,这个国家已经花了22万亿美元在消除贫困的项目上了。 They haven’t moved the dial on poverty one iota. They have created generations of dependent black people, trapped in urban ghettos like Baltimore. If you can’t educate children for $15,700 per year, then you won’t educate them any better for $18,000 per year. Liberals will never admit their policies, programs, and corrupt practices created this national disaster. 他们在贫穷问题上毫无建树。他们培养了一代代习惯于依赖的黑人,这些人便被困在像巴尔的摩这样的贫民窟里。如果你一年花15700美元教育不好一个小孩,那你一年花18000美元也无济于事。自由派不会承认他们的政策、项目和腐败的作风导致了这个全国性的灾难。 Liberal welfare policies have encouraged and rewarded out of wedlock births. The 72% black out of wedlock birth rate is the single biggest cause of Baltimore’s long-term decline. Children without fathers are destined to be uneducated, unemployed, and underachieving. Children raised by married working parents who provide good role models are not on the streets. They are studying. They are not looting, killing, robbing or having kids when they are teenagers. 此外,自由派的福利政策无疑鼓励了非婚生育。72%的非婚生育率是巴尔的摩长期衰败的最大缘由。没有父亲的孩子们注定无法受到良好教育、注定失业并一事无成。那些双亲都有工作且能为表率的孩子们是不会在街头游手好闲的——他们要学习。他们不会去抢、去杀,不会十几岁就为人父母。 There are no guarantees in life, but being stupid, lazy and ignorant guarantees a life of poverty. Liberal welfare policies pay these people to have more kids out of wedlock in order to maximize their welfare payments. There have now been three generations of black people entrapped by these demented welfare programs. 没有什么能担保你有一个好的生活,但愚蠢、懒惰和无知却保准让你的生活一贫如洗。自由派的福利政策付钱给这些人,好让他们非婚生育更多的孩子以获得最多的福利款。已有整整三代黑人被困在这些疯狂的福利项目之中。 There is no will among the recipients or distributors of race based welfare payments to change their policies or programs. Therefore, every time a white cop kills a black person or a white store owner kills a black thief in Baltimore or any urban ghetto, the potential for riots, looting, and burning of businesses will rear its ugly head. 福利款的接受者或是发放者都没有意愿去改变这些基于种族的福利政策或项目。因此,在巴尔的摩或其他某个城市贫民窟,每当一个白人警察杀死一个黑人或是一个白人店主杀死一个黑人小偷,骚乱、抢劫、纵火等丑恶行径便会抬头。 The only guarantee is the liberals running the urban ghetto will not accept blame for what they have wrought. Farewell to the America of personal responsibility, work ethic, marriage, family, and valuing education. 唯一确定的是,控制这些城市贫民窟的自由派是不会接受任何对他们所犯好事的批评的。向那个推崇个人责任、勤勉美德,赞美婚姻、家庭并珍视教育的美国道别吧! The esteemed mayor of Baltimore Stephanie Rawlings-Blake (of course a liberal black woman must hyphenate her name) summed up the disease of liberalism after her peeps had destroyed their neighborhoods the night before: 我们尊敬的巴尔地摩市市长Stephanie Rawlings-Blake(哦,当然,一个自由派的黑人妇女的名字中自然会有连字符,以显示她已婚或来自少数族裔)在其同胞于昨晚破坏了他们的社区后,这样总结自由主义的病症:
“It’s a very delicate balancing act, because while we tried to make sure that they were protected from the cars and the other things that were going on, we also gave those who wished to destroy space to do that as well.” “(警方的行动)有一种微妙的平衡,因为当我们试图确保抗议者不被车流和其他来往的东西伤害的同时,也给了那些想要搞破坏的人以机会。”
You reap what you sow America. 你们曾在美国大地播撒下那些种子,如今正在收获它们结出的果实。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

[译文]巴尔的摩单月谋杀案数量创43年最高

Baltimore killings soar to a level unseen in 43 years
巴尔的摩的谋杀案数量跃升至一个43年未见的水平

作者:Associated Press(美联社) @ 2015-8-1
译者:陆嘉宾(@晚上不买白天买不到)
校对:陈小乖(@lion_kittyyyyy),小册子(@昵称被抢的小册子)
来源:FOX NEWS,http://www.foxnews.com/us/2015/08/01/baltimore-killings-soar-to-level-unseen-in-43-years/

BALTIMORE – Baltimore reached a grim milestone on Friday, three months after riots erupted in response to the death of Freddie Gray in police custody: With 45 homicides in July, the city has seen more bloodshed in a single month than it has in 43 years.

本周五,由Freddie Grey在警方拘留期间死亡而引发的暴乱发生三个月之后,巴尔的摩树立了一座严峻的里程碑:7月份共发生了45起凶杀案,是这座城市过去43年来单月流血事件之最。

Police reported three deaths — two men shot Thursday a(more...)

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Baltimore killings soar to a level unseen in 43 years 巴尔的摩的谋杀案数量跃升至一个43年未见的水平 作者:Associated Press(美联社) @ 2015-8-1 译者:陆嘉宾(@晚上不买白天买不到) 校对:陈小乖(@lion_kittyyyyy),小册子(@昵称被抢的小册子) 来源:FOX NEWS,http://www.foxnews.com/us/2015/08/01/baltimore-killings-soar-to-level-unseen-in-43-years/ BALTIMORE – Baltimore reached a grim milestone on Friday, three months after riots erupted in response to the death of Freddie Gray in police custody: With 45 homicides in July, the city has seen more bloodshed in a single month than it has in 43 years. 本周五,由Freddie Grey在警方拘留期间死亡而引发的暴乱发生三个月之后,巴尔的摩树立了一座严峻的里程碑:7月份共发生了45起凶杀案,是这座城市过去43年来单月流血事件之最。 Police reported three deaths — two men shot Thursday and one on Friday. The men died at local hospitals. 警方公布了三起死亡事件——周四有两名男性遭遇枪击,周五再添一位。三人都死在当地医院。 With their deaths, this year's homicides reached 189, far outpacing the 119 killings by July's end in 2014. Nonfatal shootings have soared to 366, compared to 200 by the same date last year. July's total was the worst since the city recorded 45 killings in August 1972, according to The Baltimore Sun. 在经历了这三起死亡事件之后,今年的谋杀案数量达到了189起,远远超过2014年截至七月底的119起。非致命枪击案相比去年同期的累计200起跃升至366起。据《巴尔的摩太阳报》报道,七月谋杀案的总数是这座城市自1972年八月发生45起以来最多的。 The seemingly Sisyphean task of containing the city's violence prompted Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake to fire her police commissioner, Anthony Batts, on July 8. 遏制这座城市的暴力事件仿佛是一个无穷无尽却又徒劳无功的任务,这也促使了市长斯蒂芬妮·罗林斯-布莱克在7月8日开除了她的警察局长,安东尼巴茨。 "Too many continue to die on our streets," Rawlings-Blake said then. "Families are tired of dealing with this pain, and so am I. Recent events have placed an intense focus on our police leadership, distracting many from what needs to be our main focus: the fight against crime." “太多的人接连死在街道上,”罗林斯-布莱克说,“人们厌倦了这种痛苦,我也是。最近的事件使得我们警察部门领导层受到强烈关注,同时,也令很多人从我们本该集中关注的地方——打击犯罪——,分散了许多注意力。 But the killings have not abated under Interim Commissioner Kevin Davis since then. 但是自那以后,在临时局长凯文·戴维斯的治理下,谋杀案并未有所减少。 Baltimore is not unique in its suffering; crimes are spiking in big cities around the country. 巴尔的摩的问题不是个例,全国大城市的罪案率都在剧增。 But while the city's police are closing cases— Davis announced arrests in three recent murders several days ago — the violence is outpacing their efforts. Davis said Tuesday the "clearance rate" is at 36.6 percent, far lower than the department's mid-40s average. 戴维斯在几天前刚刚宣布逮捕了近期三起谋杀案的凶手。这座城市的警察确实在处理案件,但他们的努力赶不上暴力的蔓延速度。戴维斯在周二给出的“结案率”为36.6%,这个数字远远低于该部门平时45%上下的平均水平。 Crime experts and residents of Baltimore's most dangerous neighborhoods cite a confluence of factors: mistrust of the police; generalized anger and hopelessness over a lack of opportunities for young black men; and competition among dealers of illegal drugs, bolstered by the looting of prescription pills from pharmacies during the riot. 对此,犯罪专家和巴尔的摩最危险街区的居民指出了共同起作用的诸多因素:对警方的不信任;年轻黑人缺乏机会导致的普遍愤怒和绝望;非法药贩子们为暴乱中药店里被抢掠的处方药销赃,冲突更为激化。 Federal drug enforcement agents said gangs targeted 32 pharmacies in the city, taking roughly 300,000 doses of opiates, as the riots caused $9 million in property damage in the city. 联邦缉毒署的探员表示,各帮派盯上了城里的32家药房,抢走了大约30万剂鸦片类药物,暴乱总共给这座城市带来九百万美元财产损失。 Perched on a friend's stoop, Sherry Moore, 55, said she knew "mostly all" of the young men killed recently in West Baltimore, including an 18-year-old fatally shot a half-block away. Moore said many more pills are on the street since the riot, making people wilder than usual. 雪莉·穆尔今年55岁,她坐在朋友家的门廊上说,最近在西巴尔的摩被杀的年轻人她“几乎都认识”,其中包括一名在半个街区之外遭遇致命枪击的18岁少年。穆尔说,暴乱之后有更多的药物出现在了街头,这也使得人们比平时更加疯狂。 "The ones doing the violence, the shootings, they're eating Percocet like candy and they're not thinking about consequences. They have no discipline, they have no respect — they think this is a game. How many can I put down on the East side? How many can I put down on the West side?" “那些实施暴力、枪击的人吃Percocet【译注:一种鸦片类麻醉止痛药,被称为“白领的海洛因”】就像吃糖一样,且不计后果。他们没有纪律、缺乏尊重,他们觉得这是场游戏。在东边我能干掉多少人呢?西面呢?” The tally of 42 homicides in May included Gray, who died in April after his neck was broken in police custody. The July tally likewise includes a previous death — a baby whose death in June was ruled a homicide in July. 五月记录的42起凶杀案中还包括了格雷,四月份的时候他在警局羁押期间由于颈部折断死亡。七月份的记录也同样包括了一个之前的死亡案件——一个于六月死亡的婴儿在七月被判定为谋杀。 Shawn Ellerman, Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the Baltimore division of the Drug Enforcement Administration, said May's homicide spike was probably related to the stolen prescription drugs, a supply that is likely exhausted by now. But the drug trade is inherently violent, and turf wars tend to prompt retaliatory killings. 肖恩·埃勒曼是毒品管制局巴尔的摩分局的助理特别探员。他说五月份凶杀案的激增应该和那些被盗处方药物有非常大的关系,这批货现在应该已经消耗得差不多了。但是毒品交易有着固有的暴力倾向,而地盘争夺战也往往会引发报复性谋杀。 "You can't attribute every murder to narcotics, but I would think a good number" of them are, he said. "You could say it's retaliation from drug trafficking, it's retaliation from gangs moving in from other territories. But there have been drug markets in Baltimore for years." “你不能将每一桩谋杀案都归因于毒品,但是我相信其中很大的一部分确是如此”,他说,“你可以说这是由于贩毒导致的报复,这是由于其他地区转移过来的帮派抢占地盘导致的报复。但是巴尔的摩的毒品市场已经存在很多年了。” Across West Baltimore, residents complain that drug addiction and crime are part of a cycle that begins with despair among children who lack educational and recreational opportunities, and extends when people can't find work. 整个西巴尔的摩的居民们都在抱怨说,吸毒和犯罪只是循环的一部分。这个循环始于孩子们由于缺乏教育和消遣机会所导致的绝望,而在人们找不到工作时得到了蔓延。 "We need jobs! We need jobs!" a man riding around on a bicycle shouted to anyone who'd listen after four people were shot, three of them fatally, on a street corner in July. “我们需要工作!我们需要工作!”一名男性在自行车上四处骑行并向所有可能听他说话的人呼喊着口号。这发生在七月份有四人在一个街角遭遇枪击,其中三人死亡之后。 More community engagement, progressive policing policies and opportunities for young people in poverty could help, community activist MunirBahar said. 更多的社区参与、进步的治安政策和为穷困年轻人提供机会,对事情会有很大帮助,社区活动家穆尼尔·巴哈尔说。 "People are focusing on enforcement, not preventing violence. Police enforce a code, a law. Our job as the community is to prevent the violence, and we've failed," said Bahar, who leads the annual 300 Men March against violence in West Baltimore. “人们专注于执法而不是预防暴力。警方在执行法律。而我们社区的工作则是预防暴力,我们失败了。”巴哈尔说。他每年都在西巴尔的摩领导一场叫“300人游行”的反暴力游行示威。 "We need anti-violence organizations, we need mentorship programs, we need a long-term solution. But we also need immediate relief," Bahar added. "When we're in something so deep, we have to stop it before you can analyze what the root is." “我们需要反暴力组织,我们需要辅导计划,我们需要一个长期的解决方案。但我们也需要紧急救助,”巴哈尔补充道,“当问题变得这么严重时,我们必须在弄清根源之前先阻止问题继续蔓延。” Strained relationships between police and the public also play a role, according to Eugene O'Donnell, a professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. 约翰·杰伊刑事司法学院的尤金·奥唐奈教授表示,警察与公众之间的紧张关系也是问题的原因之一。 Arrests plummeted and violence soared after six officers were indicted in Gray's death. Residents accused police of abandoning their posts for fear of facing criminal charges for making arrests, and said emboldened criminals were settling scores with little risk of being caught. 在六名警官因为格雷死亡案遭到起诉之后,罪犯逮捕数量暴跌,暴力犯罪猛增。居民们指责警方由于担心逮捕行动导致刑事指控而正在怠弃职责,他们还说鉴于被捕的风险很小,放大了胆子的罪犯还在继续实施犯罪。 The department denied these claims, and police cars have been evident patrolling West Baltimore's central thoroughfares recently. 警方否认了这些说法,并且最近已经可以看见警车在西巴尔的摩市中心要道执行巡逻。 But O'Donnell said the perception of lawlessness is just as powerful than the reality. 但是O'Donnell表示无法无天的感觉就是比现实更强大。 "We have a national issue where the police feel they are the Public Enemy No. 1," he said, making some officers stand down and criminals become more brazen. “警方感觉,现在他们自己才是头号公敌,这是个全国性的问题,”他说,这使得一些警官低声下气而犯罪分子则更加肆无忌惮。 "There's a rhythm to the streets," he added. "And when people get away with gun violence, it has a long-term emboldening effect. And the good people in the neighborhood think, 'Who has the upper hand?'" “街头有一种风气,”他补充道,“当人们持枪行凶却逃脱惩罚,这就产生了一种长期的鼓励效果。而附近的好人们也会想‘谁占了上风?’” (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

[微言]刑事案可以私了吗?

【2013-03-03】

@谢作诗 为李天一轮奸案和解解决辨——上帝目光所及,一切皆可交易 http://t.cn/zYT0jex

@FrancoFang:这文的逻辑有点问题。如果他的逻辑是对的,为何各国法律都要区分刑事和民事?此案的受害者可以提起附带的民事诉讼,讨要赔偿。这部分如果李家给于赔偿,庭外和解无问题。刑事起诉部分是为了震慑其他想作案的人,个人让渡给公权力的部分,怎么能何解?

@FrancoFang:我的看法是:刑事诉讼是每个人让渡一部分产权给公权力,换得安全保障服务,要免除李天一的罪责,原则上除非全民投票通过或者独裁者特赦,否则不允许和解。QJ这种强烈侵犯他人产权的犯罪,和杀人放火一样,不能列为民事诉讼。

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【2013-03-03】 @谢作诗 为李天一轮奸案和解解决辨——上帝目光所及,一切皆可交易 http://t.cn/zYT0jex @FrancoFang:这文的逻辑有点问题。如果他的逻辑是对的,为何各国法律都要区分刑事和民事?此案的受害者可以提起附带的民事诉讼,讨要赔偿。这部分如果李家给于赔偿,庭外和解无问题。刑事起诉部分是为了震慑其他想作案的人,个人让渡给公权力的部分,怎么能何解? @FrancoFang:我的看法是:刑事诉讼是每个人让渡一部分产权给公权力,换得安全保障服务,要免除李天一的罪责,原则上除非全民投票通过或者独裁者特赦,否则不允许和解。QJ这种强烈侵犯他人产权的犯罪,和杀人放火一样,不能列为民事诉讼。 @票友卷帘西风:回复@FrancoFang:对法律经济学知之甚少,这里斗胆说两句。现有的刑法和民法的很对规定都是武断的,界限往往在侵权伤害程度。而在我看来,刑法是动用公权力惩戒,适应的范围应聚焦在处理侵权的“外部性”性大小上。像这类轮奸事件,当事人双方协商补偿,达成结果最好。不会鼓励“轮奸”发生的。 @whigzhou: 这种交易的问题是:受害方接受的补偿可能太低,不足以激励侵害方约束自己的行为,令其仍处于危险的放任状态 @票友卷帘西风:对法律经济学,对刑法和民法知之甚少。一个猜测是法律是通用条款,而真实世界是各异的活生生案例,这法律必作武断的规定,否则量刑和处罚中,与法官的裁量权太大,会带来争议,带来巨大的租值耗散。 @whigzhou: 嗯,这没错,但这是另一层次上的考虑了 @君子兰厨诗长阿山 只要你情我愿,就可以 @whigzhou: 刑事判决不只是对原告的救济,也是对被告行为的惩戒,旨在约束今后的行为 @whigzhou: 可以考虑危险驾驶行为,特定的超速驾驶行为可能没有受害者,但旨在约束此类行为的法律仍可能对其施加惩罚。 @票友卷帘西风:具体到这个案例上,就是说,如果双方达成赔偿协议,若没有外部性或外部性小,就是不会鼓励此类轮奸的发生,刑法可否在下面附设一个免除条款,不再动用公权,惩罚加害人 @whigzhou: 嗯,我的意思就是这里确实有重大的外部性需要处理,即导致轮奸发生的那种自我放任状态 @sw小橘子:李天一那件事,广大的转载围观者,以我看,在得知受害者接受赔偿撤诉时,恐怕有一种被利用的感觉。因为大家关注转载的一大目的是李天一受惩戒,而受害者却无视了这一具有公益性的目的 @whigzhou: 对,原本这些关注会成为维护规范的压力,却变成了仅仅惠及特定受害人的救济 @恶人谷江小鱼:刑事判决不单是对被告的惩戒以约束其今后行为,重要一点还包括对其他人的警示,而这种警示就是俗话说的维系法律公正,而这种警示(比如会判多少年)无论是普通法还是大陆法系来看,都具备可预见性,这一点是很重要的,也和交易费用扯上了关系。博主原文有些奥神口号派了,唉 @whigzhou: 嗯 @票友卷帘西风:不懂你说的“导致轮奸发生的那种自我放任状态”什么意思 @whigzhou: 就是为满足色欲不惜硬来的行事习惯,除非每次强奸都会被定责且达成赔偿和解,它就会带来外部性,而实际上,许多强奸行为可能未被定责,即便定了责也赔不起,因为受害者出价可能无穷大,因而需要事先威慑  
[饭文]性犯罪不是普通的人身侵犯

性犯罪不是普通的人身侵犯
辉格
2012年9月21日

本周,香港法律改革委员会发表了一份关于性犯罪和性侵犯的咨询报告,建议对强奸和性侵犯的概念进行一般化,剔除现行法律认定这两类行为时所持的性别和性倾向本位,从而涵盖目前通常以其他罪名起诉的同类行为;法改委是服务于律政司的官方研究咨询机构,其成员在香港司法界具有很高权威,不出意外的话,这些建议将体现在未来的成文法内,其原则也将在具体案件中被采用。

这是一次对法律规则进行合理化和一般化,以适应已经变化了的社会现实和司法实践的努力,重新界定的强奸和性侵犯罪名所涵盖的新型侵犯行为,此前并非不受惩罚,而是在其他罪名中处理,比如男对男的强行肛交,女对女的器物强行插入,以前可能被当作猥亵或人身伤害或性侵犯而不是强奸,再如性偷窥和裙底偷拍,以前可能作为隐私侵犯处理。

由于现行强奸定义十分狭窄,所以这些行为虽性(more...)

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性犯罪不是普通的人身侵犯 辉格 2012年9月21日 本周,香港法律改革委员会发表了一份关于性犯罪和性侵犯的咨询报告,建议对强奸和性侵犯的概念进行一般化,剔除现行法律认定这两类行为时所持的性别和性倾向本位,从而涵盖目前通常以其他罪名起诉的同类行为;法改委是服务于律政司的官方研究咨询机构,其成员在香港司法界具有很高权威,不出意外的话,这些建议将体现在未来的成文法内,其原则也将在具体案件中被采用。 这是一次对法律规则进行合理化和一般化,以适应已经变化了的社会现实和司法实践的努力,重新界定的强奸和性侵犯罪名所涵盖的新型侵犯行为,此前并非不受惩罚,而是在其他罪名中处理,比如男对男的强行肛交,女对女的器物强行插入,以前可能被当作猥亵或人身伤害或性侵犯而不是强奸,再如性偷窥和裙底偷拍,以前可能作为隐私侵犯处理。 由于现行强奸定义十分狭窄,所以这些行为虽性质上十分相似,却只能比附于其他罪名来起诉和定罪,这也是因为这些行为以前在公众的认知中原本就是截然不同的,或者非常罕见,比附凑和一下也问题不大;然而随着行为模式、公众认知和社会风俗的变化,人们越来越认识到这些行为性质上的相似性:不仅动机都是性满足,其给被害人所带来的损害也都与性有关,性排他性、性自主、屈辱和名誉损伤、性隐秘。 通过合理化,将罪名与公众对行为与伤害的性质的认知一致起来,对以往司法实践中所积累的经验进行条理化,形成更抽象而一般的规则,这是法律演化的恰当途径,它可以让法律规则变得更容易为公众所理解和遵从;相反,若永远依靠比附,通过展衍扭曲古老规则来将就适应不断出现的新问题,法律就会变得越来越深奥难懂,普通民众就会因此而无所适从。 那么,为何不索性更进一步,用一个更一般化的人身侵犯罪名把强奸和殴打、捆绑、泼粪等造成身心痛苦的人身伤害行为统统涵盖进去呢?这是因为造成性伤害的心理和文化机制都非常特殊,将其笼统的涵盖于一个罪名,容易让人低估其伤害的严重性。 比如拍别人的肩膀、摸一下头,可能也会造成侵犯,假如你和对方此前并未建立起码的亲密关系并对此有所默契的话,但这种侵犯是非常轻微的,和拍一位异性的臀部或捏她的胸相比,有着天壤之别,同样,你把手指插入他人嘴里,和将另一个器官插入相比,也截然不同,而这种区别,只有在明确认识到其中的性含义后才正确辨别。 哲学家威拉德·奎因([[Willard Quine]])提醒我们,过于一般化或过于具体化的概念,都是难以把握、不适合用来认识和谈论事情的(至少不适合用作认识和谈论的起点),比如你问我午饭吃了什么,我不会说:一些植物种子和一杯黄色悬浊液,也不会说:200克黑龙江五常县产长粒香2号晚籼稻和180毫升早熟南丰型一级温州蜜桔榨取液,而大概会说:一碗米饭和一杯橘子汁。 可见,我们用作认识和谈论世界之起点的,都是一些处于奎因所说的“中等尺度”(middle-sized)上的概念,而什么才算中等尺度,没有先验标准可以一劳永逸的确定,它取决于特定时代特定社会公众的认知习惯,是他们在交流过程中所找到的最容易描述其所认知的事实和传达其观念的那些概念,因而纯粹是个经验问题,法官和法学家所做的一般化,总是跟随在实践和经验的后面。 性含义之所以独特而重要,足以将一类人身和隐私侵犯行为与其他众多侵犯行为区分开来,成为值得被单独处理的犯罪类型,是因为与之相应的心理和文化机制本身就很独特,而这一独特性已逐渐为人们所认识。 在直立人向现代智人进化的那几十万年历史中,人类始终面临着一个重大困难:孩子的保护和抚养问题;首先,为直立行走而变窄了的女性骨盆和为认知和语言能力而扩大了的头颅之间,是对严重的矛盾,找到的解决方案是早产,结果使得人类婴儿变得特别脆弱无助。 其次,人类高度复杂文化要求孩子在独立生活之前经历一个漫长的学习期,学会使用语言、处理社会关系和习得社会规范,为此人类刻意延缓了青春期之前的发育速度;可这样一来,儿童的保护和抚养便成了一个沉重的负担,再也不可能像其他猿类近亲那样由母亲独自承担了,不得不依靠两性结成稳定配偶关系来合作抚养。 然而同时,人类的性策略又是高度机会主义的,两性在努力维持配偶与家庭关系的同时,当条件适宜时,总是在配偶关系之外随时捕捉更好的性机会,所以人类配偶关系从来不是像长臂猿那样忠贞不二高枕无忧的,总是在小心翼翼的维持着脆弱的平衡,双方都随时在警惕着对方的出轨和变心苗头,也随时在为自己安排后路。 为了维持这种危机四伏但又无比重要的关系,人类发展出来层层叠叠、越来越复杂微妙的心理和文化机制,包括性嫉妒、性信号的掩饰或夸大、性羞涩和与之相应的性隐秘倾向,性排他要求和对出轨的敏感、警惕和暴怒,对女性性纯洁的执着和由此而来的贞操观和处女情结,社会对守贞的压力,进而女性对失贞的恐惧;由性排他的重要性而产生的对性自主的强烈愿望,和以性控制作为显示社会威势和地位的手段,进而造成失去性自主时强烈的屈辱感和声誉损坏。 所以,若不将人身侵犯的性含义单独抽出来,并放到上述心理和文化背景中,是无法理解和恰当评估这种侵犯对被侵者可能造成的心理痛苦和名誉损伤的,因而也就难以核定相应的补偿和惩罚;当然有人会说,产生上述心理和文化机制的进化基础已经不复存在了,如今人们对贞操已不再那么关切,因而所谓的心理痛苦和名誉损伤也就无从谈起了,在他们看来,似乎强奸与普通的施暴并不无实质区别,至少不再像传统社会那么严重了。 这种说法是不对的,因为无论心理还是文化的进化,都是缓慢而有惯性的过程,一种心理或文化机制的进化基础或许已消失很久,但这些机制本身仍可以长期存在,而只要它们还存在着,起着作用,那么相应的侵犯行为就仍会带来和以前一样的心理痛苦和名誉损伤。 所以,尽管失贞的恐惧和丧失性自主的屈辱感是当初是基于性排他而产生的,而今天的女性已不是很在意自己是否处女,她们也知道自己的未来配偶大概也不太在意或无从知晓,而借助避孕和亲子鉴定技术,男性们也很容易了解孩子是否亲生,但所有这些都无法否定,失贞恐惧和性屈辱感仍是真实而强烈的,对失贞者的文化压力也仍然是真实存在的,甚至仍有许多女性为此而不惜用自杀来证明这一点。  
饭文#G2: “临时性强奸”错在哪里?

“临时性强奸”错在哪里?
辉格
2009年11月3日

近日,南浔法院对一起强奸案的判决,为网络流行语词典又增添了一个新词汇:“临时性强奸”;此案判决结果是罪名成立,有期徒刑三年,这是《刑法》为强奸罪所定刑期的下限,判词给出的从轻理由有三个:1)属临时性的即意犯罪,事前并无商谋,2)事后主动自首,3)取得被害人谅解;正是第一个从轻理由受到了广泛质疑,被认为是法官的凭空发明,一时间在舆论中沦为继躲猫猫和俯卧撑之后的又一个笑柄。

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“临时性强奸”错在哪里?
辉格
2009年11月3日

近日,南浔法院对一起强奸案的判决,为网络流行语词典又增添了一个新词汇:“临时性强奸”;此案判决结果是罪名成立,有期徒刑三年,这是《刑法》为强奸罪所定刑期的下限,判词给出的从轻理由有三个:1)属临时性的即意犯罪,事前并无商谋,2)事后主动自首,3)取得被害人谅解;正是第一个从轻理由受到了广泛质疑,被认为是法官的凭空发明,一时间在舆论中沦为继躲猫猫和俯卧撑之后的又一个笑柄。

然而,尽管这个判决存在严重问题,但问题要害不在于“临时起意”这一概念的引入,而在于对轮奸的认定;一旦轮奸成立,刑期下限就是十年,即便从轻也不会轻至三年;从已报道的事实看,轮奸显然可以成立,而判词也没有说明法庭究竟采信了何种抗辩使轮奸情节得以排除,这才是该判决的最大疑点;轮奸之所以严重,不仅因为它给受害者带来更大的羞辱和恐惧,更因为它是团伙作案,而团伙合作形成的暴力和强制力远超出分散个人。

作为“预谋”(premeditated)的反义词,“临时起意”这个概念倒算不上无中生有的编造,只不过“临时性的”这个表述不太精确;在刑事案件中,区分预谋和临时起意是有意义的,因为法律的作用,在于为人们安排自己的生活提供一个可预期的行为环境,预谋犯罪往往更难防范,因而更容易打破人们的预期,相比之下,即意犯罪是在随机而遇的机会诱惑之下临时作出,相对更容易由受害者的审慎来加以防范;比如,顺手牵羊属即意偷窃,而入室夜盗则是预谋的,前者较容易防范,而后者防不胜防,且防范代价很高,故而需要更重的惩罚。

在强奸案中,男女聚宴、同处一室、酒后陡起歹念,这些都可由当事人在择友、赴宴、饮酒、同室等方面的审慎而加以避免,相反,拦路埋伏挟持的强奸,即便淑女也无从防范,所以,以即意情节为从轻依据,未尝不可;本案中,判断是否预谋,要看犯罪起意的时间是在进入宾馆房间之后,还是远在此之前;按常理,非伴侣关系的女性朋友烂醉之后,恰当的做法是送回家,而不是由异性带去宾馆开房,因此,在作出开房这一异常决定的那一刻,极可能已经起意,这便构成了强烈的预谋嫌疑,而判词未说明采信了何种抗辩使该嫌疑得以排除。

本案的另一个从轻理由“取得被害人谅解”,同样不能成立,因为该理由所基于的刑事和解制度,仅仅适用于类似侵权案的自诉案件,这些案件虽然被归类为刑事案,但在性质上更接近于民事侵权,其涉及的主要是当事人的利益冲突而非公共秩序,司法在此类案件中的作用,主要是对被害人的救济而非对犯罪者惩罚,因而诉讼发起也以自诉为主;显然,强奸不在此列,《刑法》第56条将强奸与故意杀人等列为严重危害公共秩序的犯罪,更何况是轮奸,因而本案判词援引刑事和解原则,以取得谅解为从轻理由,是错误的。

在经不起推敲的两个从轻理由之外,反倒有一些本应导致加重处罚的情节:首先,被害人并非与一名男子单独约会,而是两男两女聚餐,女性对后一种情形会更少防范,并且酒后护送其前往宾馆的也是两位熟识的男子,这使其更难以料到他们会在多位熟人在场的情况下悍然施暴,按保护合理预期原则,更难预料和防范的犯罪应加重惩罚;其次,两名作案者的身份都是协警,这会使当事人对其托付更多的信任而失于防范,结果这一信任却被利用来实施犯罪,这理当成为从重处罚的理由;这样的从重处罚,是对熟人间善意关系的支持,也是对执法者信任习惯的支持,它可以告诉人们:这样的信任是可以托付的,破坏它的人将会受到加重惩罚。

孟买惨案再次昭示禁枪之荒谬

禁枪法很少能阻止歹徒获得枪支,却剥夺了良民的防御手段,对于歹徒和黑手党,犯罪是他们的职业,多触犯一条禁枪法不会给他们增加多少风险,而良民则只好乖乖弃枪。据《华尔街日报》的报道,在孟买,枪支管制之严,居然连车站的警察和大酒店的保安都没有配枪,结果区区10名枪手横行孟买如入无人之境,历时60多小时,攻击了至少8个地点:

他们在车站基本没有遇到任何抵抗,尽管车站通常布置有数十名警察。8号站台旁的咖啡店老板维尔(Ram Vir)称,匪徒在光天化日之下杀人,而警察却逃之夭夭。孟买地区的铁路警察部门负责人西德胡(B.S. Sidhu)称,虽然某些警员试图还击,但他的手下人起不到太大作用。火车站布置的大部分警察要么不携带武器,或者只携带警棍,在全印度都是如此。……

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禁枪法很少能阻止歹徒获得枪支,却剥夺了良民的防御手段,对于歹徒和黑手党,犯罪是他们的职业,多触犯一条禁枪法不会给他们增加多少风险,而良民则只好乖乖弃枪。据《华尔街日报》的报道,在孟买,枪支管制之严,居然连车站的警察和大酒店的保安都没有配枪,结果区区10名枪手横行孟买如入无人之境,历时60多小时,攻击了至少8个地点:

他们在车站基本没有遇到任何抵抗,尽管车站通常布置有数十名警察。8号站台旁的咖啡店老板维尔(Ram Vir)称,匪徒在光天化日之下杀人,而警察却逃之夭夭。孟买地区的铁路警察部门负责人西德胡(B.S. Sidhu)称,虽然某些警员试图还击,但他的手下人起不到太大作用。火车站布置的大部分警察要么不携带武器,或者只携带警棍,在全印度都是如此。……

晚上9点45左右时,两名身材纤瘦、年龄在25岁左右的枪手跳出三叉戟酒店入口处的环形车道,向保安和两名酒店服务生射击。据该酒店董事长奥巴罗(P.R.S. Oberoi)介绍,酒店有金属探测仪,但由于在印度很难获得政府发放的持枪许可证,因此没有保安携带武器。……

此时在孟买上城区,两名之前袭击了火车站的恐怖分子(据官方说,两名持枪者袭击孟买火车站的情形被车站的监控录像拍摄了下来)赶到了附近的Cama妇女儿童医院,打死门口的两名没有武器的警卫并跑上楼梯。当时,发生恐怖袭击的消息已在这一带传播开来。……