含有〈宗教〉标签的文章(46)

Wokeism这个歪种

【2021-02-16】

从长波段看,Wokeism这个歪种是90年代以来左派所经历的一次智识大破产的结果,这次破产主要发生在社科领域,也就是和公共议题直接相关的那些学科,这些领域在90年代以前是左派独领风骚的,所以当时的左派在智力上是以同情怜悯的眼光俯视保守派的,但自那以来,他们的整个理论基础都被击垮了,

问题是,理论垮台并不一定导致意识形态破产,因为构成阵营绝大多数的外围粉丝,需要的不是牢靠的理论,而只是响亮的说辞,也就是能让他们在面对各种*为什么*时方便搬出来又不失体面的乘手答案,所以,虽然6/70年代的那种左派在社科领域已经被扫进了各种Studies,但这部分人在整个知识群体中所占比例其实很小,绝大多数都是满足于一套响亮说辞的一知半解者,他们在自己的专业可能确实表现出色,但在公共议题上(more...)

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8434
【2021-02-16】 从长波段看,Wokeism这个歪种是90年代以来左派所经历的一次智识大破产的结果,这次破产主要发生在社科领域,也就是和公共议题直接相关的那些学科,这些领域在90年代以前是左派独领风骚的,所以当时的左派在智力上是以同情怜悯的眼光俯视保守派的,但自那以来,他们的整个理论基础都被击垮了, 问题是,理论垮台并不一定导致意识形态破产,因为构成阵营绝大多数的外围粉丝,需要的不是牢靠的理论,而只是响亮的说辞,也就是能让他们在面对各种*为什么*时方便搬出来又不失体面的乘手答案,所以,虽然6/70年代的那种左派在社科领域已经被扫进了各种Studies,但这部分人在整个知识群体中所占比例其实很小,绝大多数都是满足于一套响亮说辞的一知半解者,他们在自己的专业可能确实表现出色,但在公共议题上运用的知识体系根本不需要有多精妙,从那座早已垮塌的大厦的废墟中捡来的砖瓦仍足以让他们在大众面前炫耀智力优越感, 结果就是我们如今看到的局面 @孤胆鹰雄芯: 就是Wokeism这种简单奉行教条,只是响亮的说辞,时间长了,会不会也变成之前的“*祭司/牧师们就是这么训导的*,*经上就是这么说的*”而被人觉得无知,从而失去声望地位,反而到时候被新的歌命左派反噬 @whigzhou: 当然会,实际上 Liberals 对 Wokeism的反击早就开始了,只是还没分出胜负 @whigzhou: 其实,类似 Wokeism 这样的激进教派,若是果真能长期生存,建立起可持续的社区,发展出有生气的文化,若干代之后,会演变成另一支保守派! @whigzhou: 历史上这样的例子不少,早期基督徒就是一批狂热极左分子,新教运动中诞生的很多教派也非常激进反传统,其中很多消亡了,生存下来的后来都成了保守派 @whigzhou: 不过,就Wokeism这个例子,我看没戏,因为他们不生孩子 @whigzhou: 就好比震颤派(Shakers),当年也是火过一阵,可是因为奉行严格禁欲,不许生孩子,当然就灭绝了 @whigzhou: 所以保守主义的妙处就在于,我们不需要问某个传统的来历是什么,其出现和被奉行是基于何种理由,只要它能帮助我们组织起繁荣健康的社会,发展出有生气的文化,让我们体验到生活于其中的价值,那就值得继续维护它,哪怕它的来历看起来那么暧昧、不可理喻,都无关紧要,关键是其长久存在和它所带来的成就,以及我们对这些成就的珍爱,这就足够了,无须其他理由, 你去跟摩门教徒解释当年 Joseph Smith 那套东西多么荒唐可笑,人家根本没必要理你,他们过的很好,也感觉生活很有意义,当年那套东西可笑吗,确实可笑,看起来就像非常低级的那种传销活动,那又如何? @孤胆鹰雄芯: 这是否说明,狂热激进分子也是值得存在的,他们起码是之后保守派所要维护和珍视的“传统”的重要创造来源,只要创造出来的东西留下来,帮助我们组织起繁荣社会,生气文化等。只是现在来看,目前的激进派进步派创造的东西,无益于帮助社会和文化繁荣,所以要反对,而要坚持已有的传统和价值。是吗? @whigzhou: 先看第一句,这就好比说,变异是进化得以发生的必备条件,所以变异是有用的,而因为高能辐射或病毒能带来变异,所以辐射和病毒对于进化是有用的,这么说当然没错,可是,若进而推出:高能辐射和病毒是好东西,让我们热情拥抱它们,每天洗一次辐射浴,每顿喝一碗病毒汤吧!那就荒唐了,这是前达尔文线性逻辑引出的典型荒唐, 对于进化,变异当然不可或缺,可是多数变异是中性的,而非中性的那些,绝大多数是有害的,极少数有用变异,也只有在它产生很久之后,基于事后之明,才能看清, 实际上,进化史上,有机体面对的大难题总是如何降低而不是提高变异率,真核细胞发展出了一套极为复杂的复制错误控制机制,才把变异率降低了好几个数量级,若非如此,复杂生命根本不可能建立, 在一个充满随机扰动的混沌世界,根本无须为变异来源的匮乏而操心,需要操心的是如何保守既有成果, 再看第二句,有益无益只有事后才知道,反对大面积激进改变的根本理由,不是我们能够确知其有害后果,而是我们无法预知其后果! 所以,即便我相当有信心的相信一项改变能带来有益后果,作为保守派,也倾向于让它以分散渐进、零敲碎打的方式发生, 当然,这一态度,针对的是我所珍爱的那个共同体的传统, @学经济家: 意识形态化是不是也和政治干预有关系?记得看过一篇报道讲,奥黑的教育部以诉讼骚扰or拨款打分等方式,搞的各个大学纷纷设立平权办公室,雇佣美版政治委员,然后教职员工就都学会了念经。 @whigzhou: 奥巴马只是加速了一个早已开始的过程,依我看,转变的关键,是教授治校传统的衰微 @whigzhou: 在以往的教授治校传统中,行政部门是教授的打杂仆人,如今他们彷佛成了老板,这一转变是如何发生的,我还不清楚,希望看到系统性的说法  
知识界为何那么左

【2021-02-16】

很多人都曾困惑于这个问题:为何知识/学术/技术界那么左?或者更一般而言,为何(统计上)教育程度越高就越左?

Thomas Sowell 有过很好的分析(见Intellectuals and Society),哈耶克也曾有所论及,他们都说的不错,不过,他们的分析好像只覆盖了以公姿为代表的一小撮知识精英,并不能解释这个庞大(且仍在膨胀)群体中那些藉藉无名的大多数的意识形态倾向,

我越来越觉得,这事情跟地位/声望竞赛脱不了干系,我并不是第一个从这个方向考虑此问题的人,Rob Henderson 前年在 Quillette 上发过一篇文章,提出了 Luxury Beliefs 假说,但这(如果成立)似乎只适用于当代的 ,(more...)

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【2021-02-16】 很多人都曾困惑于这个问题:为何知识/学术/技术界那么左?或者更一般而言,为何(统计上)教育程度越高就越左? [[Thomas Sowell]] 有过很好的分析(见Intellectuals and Society),哈耶克也曾有所论及,他们都说的不错,不过,他们的分析好像只覆盖了以公姿为代表的一小撮知识精英,并不能解释这个庞大(且仍在膨胀)群体中那些藉藉无名的大多数的意识形态倾向, 我越来越觉得,这事情跟地位/声望竞赛脱不了干系,我并不是第一个从这个方向考虑此问题的人,Rob Henderson 前年在 Quillette 上发过一篇文章,提出了 Luxury Beliefs 假说,但这(如果成立)似乎只适用于当代的 ,而不是一般的左倾, 依我看,与此有关的竞争要点是:对暴露自身平庸和无知的恐惧, 受教育越多的人,越可能将自己在知识/智力上的优势当作地位/声望竞赛的资本,因而比其他人更着意维护和宣示自己在这方面的优势,这就意味着,他将竭力避免在任何事情上表现出无知或平庸, 设想一群年轻父母,都整天面对着自家小孩一连串为什么-为什么-为什么的追问,其中许多问题他们其实都是没有答案的,那么,其中哪些更可能轻松承认自己不知道呢?我猜,受教育越多的,越可能为自己不得不说不知道而尴尬, 同样的情形也存在于同侪间的日常对话,每当一个*为什么*冒出来时,谁将是那些坦然承认自己不知道的人呢? 在传统社会,当你向孩子或同侪解释为何我们最好遵循某项习俗或传统时,可能会搬出诸如*老祖宗就是这么教我们的*,*祭司/牧师们就是这么训导的*,*经上就是这么说的*……的理由,所有这些说辞,其实都是在委婉的承认:我不知道为什么,但我相信照这么做总没错, 可是在当代社会,你要是搬出这些理由,差不多就相当于直接承认自己的无知, 而另一方面,如果你搬出的是一种显而易见的,人人能理解的,且早已得到广泛认可的理由,那你就会显得太平庸了, 这两条合起来,就注定会让你站在习俗和传统的对立面,也就是说,只要你采用了这种声望竞争策略,那就大致上注定了,你不会成为保守派,因为维系一种文化、支撑一个社会的诸多传统,其中多数是人类难以理解的,或尚未得到理解的,而少数其功能已得到解释和理解的,又恰恰是非常浅显易懂因而早已得到承认的那些,而复述这些浅显理由只能让你表现的像一个唠叨不休的老古董, 可是既然如此,为何古代社会的知识精英(统计上)要保守的多呢? 这是因为: 1)在古代,能够清楚讲述传统这一点,本身便足以给你带来声望,因为绝大多数人没受过丁点教育,连一句文绉绉的话都讲不出,更别提大段大段的引经据典,背诵经文了,能给你讲曾祖辈以前的那些老故事,就已经了不得了, 2)在古代,哪怕道理浅显易懂,好处明显可见的传统或社会规范,下层穷人也未必有能力遵循,所谓人穷志短,整天操心填不饱肚子的穷人,总是更难秉持各种传统美德, 现代社会创造了一个庞大的中产阶层,几乎消除了文盲,这两条都不成立了, @Neo_primate:这个有个临界点的,科学思维训练到一定程度,“我不知道”就反而变得容易说出口了。 @whigzhou: 这种临界点是领域特异的,我见过不少人在自己的专业里很乐意说*我不知道*,一跨进他一知半解甚至一窍不通的社会/政治议题,反倒变得自信满满了 @whigzhou: 从这个角度看,Wokeism其实偏离了左派的常规,通过拒绝任何严肃思考,简单奉行教条,击杀一切异端,Wokeists 已经放弃了智力上的优越感,变成了一个教派  
价值决战

【2020-11-03】

对于我们旁观者,这次大选最凸显的一点是,它提醒我们,社会终究是一个道德共同体,即,共同体成员将一组道德原则作为他们组织共同生活的社会契约,我在《群居的艺术》里曾花了不少篇幅说明这一点(见第II-6,II-8,III-5章)。

从历史演变进程看,社会越富裕,个体自由度越高,共同体就越趋向于以道德原则为其构建基础,而传统上界定共同体边界的那些因素——血缘,族裔,随生态/资源/技术限制而划定的地缘政治边界——则逐渐弱化,作为移民国家,美国是迄今朝此方向走的最远的一个。

在古代,构成(more...)

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【2020-11-03】 对于我们旁观者,这次大选最凸显的一点是,它提醒我们,社会终究是一个道德共同体,即,共同体成员将一组道德原则作为他们组织共同生活的社会契约,我在《群居的艺术》里曾花了不少篇幅说明这一点(见第II-6,II-8,III-5章)。 从历史演变进程看,社会越富裕,个体自由度越高,共同体就越趋向于以道德原则为其构建基础,而传统上界定共同体边界的那些因素——血缘,族裔,随生态/资源/技术限制而划定的地缘政治边界——则逐渐弱化,作为移民国家,美国是迄今朝此方向走的最远的一个。 在古代,构成共同体道德基础的诸原则,通常被封装成某种形式的宗教,而在美国,它们逐渐(虽然并非全部)被移入宪法之中,并由一套制度基础设施加以维护,由此,共同体的立约过程和契约内容,都变得更为正式和显明。 传统上基于宗教的共同体往往是强共同体,其成员在生活/行动的所有方面都受其严格约束,而基于宪法而构建的,则可以是弱共同体,所谓弱,是指构成社会契约的道德原则是一个极小的集合,只约束个人生活/行动的少数几个方面,个人在其余所有事情上都保有自由。 一个道德共同体若要继续存在,其成员必须就一组最低限度的共同原则达成最低限度的合意,可是,个体价值观分布始终在随文化演变的漂移,并没有任何法则能保障这种合意总是会达成,所以,历史上总有这样一些时刻,争执不下的各方不得不摊牌、决斗,以分出胜负。 依我看,本次大选就是这样一次价值决战,双方在基本道德原则上的分歧已到了水火不容,必须做出抉择的地步,也就是说,美国人需要一次类似于56年前那样的一边倒大选结果,以便明确分出胜负,让惨败一方要么服气,要么滚蛋,要么被无情压制。 基于上述认识,我并不赞同许多老派人士对当前政治两极化的担忧,因为如此深刻而巨大的分歧是必须解决的,摊牌决战是迟早会发生的,晚不如早,四年前川浦上台的刺激效果或许加速了这一过程,但那不是坏事。 历史上,美国至少经历过三次这样的摊牌:内战,新政,伟大社会。 我相信这次美国人会做出正确选择,我也相信,无论哪方胜出,都不会像第一次那样以热战的方式发生,两个理由:大法官的民望和权威仍非常牢固,迄今没有任何理由怀疑将军们的忠诚和荣誉感。  
宗教经济学

【2020-09-16】

之前在EconTalk听了一个对宗教经济学家 Laurence Iannaccone 的访谈,其中有个观点,认为宗教在美国之所以没有经历像欧洲那种程度的衰退(以信众人数,上教堂频率,捐款等活跃度指标衡量),是因为美国有着远更自由的宗教市场,这一点之所以被忽视,是因为以往人们在谈论宗教自由度时,通常只关注消费方的选择自由(即个人选择信不信、信什么,入哪派的自由),在这方面,欧美在过去一个半世纪中似乎已没多大差别,可是,假如我们将注意力转向供方,便可发现差异巨大,在美国,创立新教派或组织新教会,都是完全自由的,而在欧洲,这会面临非常大障碍,有时几乎不可(more...)

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【2020-09-16】 之前在EconTalk听了一个对宗教经济学家 Laurence Iannaccone 的访谈,其中有个观点,认为宗教在美国之所以没有经历像欧洲那种程度的衰退(以信众人数,上教堂频率,捐款等活跃度指标衡量),是因为美国有着远更自由的宗教市场,这一点之所以被忽视,是因为以往人们在谈论宗教自由度时,通常只关注消费方的选择自由(即个人选择信不信、信什么,入哪派的自由),在这方面,欧美在过去一个半世纪中似乎已没多大差别,可是,假如我们将注意力转向供方,便可发现差异巨大,在美国,创立新教派或组织新教会,都是完全自由的,而在欧洲,这会面临非常大障碍,有时几乎不可能,究其因,在国家权力退出宗教事务这一点上,美国做的最为彻底,而且从建国起便已实现。 刚刚又想起这个话题,于是查了些资料,发现确实如此,仅以瑞典和德国为例。 在瑞典,直到1860年之前,脱离路德教会都是非法的,1860年后,允许脱离,但只能转入另一个基督教会,这一规定直到1951年才废除,而路德宗的国教地位一直维持到2000,目前,瑞典是全欧宗教活跃度最低的国家。 在战后德国,虽然政府并不限制创立新教会,但他有个奇葩政策:教会税,这是附加在所得税上的一个特别税种(约为所得税的8-9%),不管是不是信徒都得交,收来的钱分配给合格教会,所谓合格就是具有足够规模且历史足够长,这就相当于把宗教市场变成了single payer,既已立足的教会根本不需要操心筹款的事情,这当然极大削弱了宗教市场的竞争和创新,看了下 church tax 这个维基词条,貌似这种情况在欧洲还很流行。 缺乏供方自由的结果是阻断了供方通过竞争和创新不断进化的动力,令其难以适应始终处于变化之中的宗教需求,结果是信众不断流失。 而且这种阻断的效果是非常持久的,即便现在完全放开,供给活跃度也需要好几代人才会提高到新的均衡水平,因为正如Iannaccone在另一篇文章里所解释的,宗教供给和其他商品很不一样,建立新教派/新教会需要漫长而艰苦的努力,因而供方调整有很长的滞后期。 若考虑这一滞后期,便可发现,美国宗教市场还有另一个大优势:他的供给来源从一开始就非常丰富多样,殖民时代各殖民地就分属多个教派,而此后移民浪潮中,移民宗教背景更是无所不包,这一点,加上供方的充分自由,让美国的潜在信徒拥有其他任何地方都不可比拟的多样选择,这最生动的体现在四次大觉醒浪潮之中。 由此可见,所谓美国例外,要点其实还是在于自由。 附:Iannaccone 有篇文章介绍了他的宗教经济学概念和理论框架,收录于 John Hinnells 的 The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion (2009) 第27章,有兴趣可以找来读一下。 @如玉我从来不P图: 德国可以不交教堂税的,在市政厅登记人口时候报备无宗教就可以了。年纪大一些的人很多不会退出了,因为以后还要考虑葬礼和教堂墓地的问题。年轻一代退出的很多,我认识的德国人基本没人交教堂税。 @whigzhou: 多谢指正  
难以置信的信条

【2020-08-06】

很多人可能觉得,woke教那些信条那么荒唐(比如否认性别的生物学基础),怎么竟然还有人信,人怎么可以愚蠢到这种程度(不少还是藤校教授),其实,对比一下其他教派,这事情并不算太奇特。

所有教派都会要求信徒相信一些难以置信的东西,这些信条实际上是一种组织工具,它们有两个功能:第一是考验和筛选信徒,原理和一些首领以指鹿为马来考验部下的忠诚度一样——如果你觉得那难以置信,说明你还不够忠诚不够服帖,区别只是,在教派形成过程中,这种(more...)

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8258
【2020-08-06】 很多人可能觉得,woke教那些信条那么荒唐(比如否认性别的生物学基础),怎么竟然还有人信,人怎么可以愚蠢到这种程度(不少还是藤校教授),其实,对比一下其他教派,这事情并不算太奇特。 所有教派都会要求信徒相信一些难以置信的东西,这些信条实际上是一种组织工具,它们有两个功能:第一是考验和筛选信徒,原理和一些首领以指鹿为马来考验部下的忠诚度一样——如果你觉得那难以置信,说明你还不够忠诚不够服帖,区别只是,在教派形成过程中,这种考验未必需要围绕某位首领进行,而可以以协调博弈的方式在群体中自发的进行。 第二个功能是剥离信徒的常规社会关系,以强化教派成员的相互依赖,正因为信条极其荒谬而难以置信,宣称相信它,会让那些忠诚的信徒被旁人另眼相看,视为异类怪人,敬而远之,从而迫使他们转向教内兄弟抱团取暖,建立起一种强排他性的组织,并在组织内部实现强互惠和高合作性。 有个例子或许可以帮助我们理解第二点,北美有一些摩托车帮派,入伙者必须在臂膀上纹上纳粹图案,所以经常被视为新纳粹组织,可是有人研究发现,他们对纳粹的意识形态,镇痔诉求,或反犹主义,其实毫无兴趣,他们的活动也跟这些完全没关系,要求成员纹上这些图案,仅仅是因为他们知道这些符号是主流文化所不容的,所以,一旦纹上,你在主流社会就很难混了(交朋友找工作租房子都难),你的主要社会关系都被限定在帮派内部了,社交需求/情感需求/安全需求等等只能在那里寻求满足,这就极大提升了帮派的凝聚力。 当然,并非所有信条都能产生如此强的排他性和凝聚力,教条的考验与筛选强度,信条的难以置信的程度,都存在一个从弱到强的连续梯度,相应的,教派从松散到紧密也有一个连续梯度。
作为希腊遗产的基督教

【2018-06-13】

越来越觉得,基督教基本上是希腊遗产,希伯来成分只是个空壳,虽然壳也不是完全不相关…… ​​​​

使徒们生活于希腊化世界,成长于希腊文化,往往来自高流动性阶层因而更具希腊性而非地方性或民族性,福音书皆以希腊语写作,其普世主义建基于希腊化时代之新兴价值观,其哲学内核同样取自希腊哲学传统。 ​​​​

 

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8040
【2018-06-13】 越来越觉得,基督教基本上是希腊遗产,希伯来成分只是个空壳,虽然壳也不是完全不相关…… ​​​​ 使徒们生活于希腊化世界,成长于希腊文化,往往来自高流动性阶层因而更具希腊性而非地方性或民族性,福音书皆以希腊语写作,其普世主义建基于希腊化时代之新兴价值观,其哲学内核同样取自希腊哲学传统。 ​​​​  
伊斯兰的新教运动

【2016-12-23】

@海德沙龙 《伊斯兰改革是否可能? ​​​​》 一种观点认为激进派和原教旨主义并不能代表伊斯兰,后者总体而言是和平宽容向善的,另一种观点认为基本教义决定了伊斯兰只能陷于目前这种不堪的状态,而在Daniel Pipes看来,第一种观点无视了当前的基本事实,第二种观点则既与伊斯兰历史不符……

@海德沙龙:Pipes指出了两个难以否认的历史事实:1)在历史上,伊斯兰社会并未被束缚于基本教义,2)假如基本教义能够如此决定一个宗教群体的社会生活和制度走向,那么基督教世界的近代转变同样不会发生。

(more...)
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【2016-12-23】 @海德沙龙 《伊斯兰改革是否可能? ​​​​》 一种观点认为激进派和原教旨主义并不能代表伊斯兰,后者总体而言是和平宽容向善的,另一种观点认为基本教义决定了伊斯兰只能陷于目前这种不堪的状态,而在Daniel Pipes看来,第一种观点无视了当前的基本事实,第二种观点则既与伊斯兰历史不符…… @海德沙龙:Pipes指出了两个难以否认的历史事实:1)在历史上,伊斯兰社会并未被束缚于基本教义,2)假如基本教义能够如此决定一个宗教群体的社会生活和制度走向,那么基督教世界的近代转变同样不会发生。 @whigzhou: Pipes对历史的回顾很有价值,可以清除最简单的那些错误,但他的乐观展望并没有说服力 @whigzhou: 依我看,1)伊斯兰改革当然可能,而且已经发生了,不止一次,2)当代伊斯兰主义就是一种伊斯兰的新教运动,3)宗教改革中诞生的教派通常都是激进的和原教旨主义的,4)基督教改革最初也产生了各种激进和暴力教派,以及宗教战争,5)基督教新教运动最终达致的可意结果和教义没多大关系, @whigzhou: 6)基督教世界最终迎来的政教分离、宗教宽容和信仰自由,不是任何新旧教义的逻辑后果,而是既已存在的文化背景、制度基础和政治权力结构共同作用的结果,这个(广义的)制度框架将教派冲突约束在令其有可能向宪政均衡收敛的限度之内,类似的事情发生在另一个环境中,结果十有八九是糟糕的, @whigzhou: 7)实际上,这一最终的均衡只有我们局外人在事后看来才是理想的,而在参与其中的任何教派眼里,那既不是他们期望的,也不是他们想要或喜欢的 @whigzhou: 8)在美国,新教运动和教派分化其实从来没有停止过,新教派伴随一轮轮大觉醒不断涌现,其中绝大部分是和平的,据此你很容易得出结论:新教基本上是和平的,这当然没错,但你也很可能进而断定:这一宗教『本质上』就是和平的,其教义决定了它是和平的,那就错了, @whigzhou: 试想,在一次次教派裂变中,只要出现一个非和平的变种,同时又没有宪政确保其他教派不受其伤害,那么其他教派要么(A)消失,要么(B)也变成暴力教派,要么(C)谋求自己动手建立秩序(从而破坏政教分离原则) @whigzhou: 9)那么,伊斯兰可能得到良性改革所需要的文化/政治条件吗?当然不会,因为大英帝国早已解散,如今连羞涩勉强版的美帝国也正在解散  
读史笔记#23:封侯拜爵的神仙们

封侯拜爵的神仙们
辉格
2016年12月11日

中国民间信仰以其神仙繁多而著称,宋代仅湖州一地的寺观祠庙里供奉的神祗,有史料可查者即有92个,扣除名号重复者,还有50多个,粗略估算,全国各地的神祗数量大约介于乡镇数和村庄数之间,看来古代中国人『积极造神,见神即拜』的名声并非虚浪。

如此多神仙得到敬拜,还要归功于神仙来源的多样化,和大众在神仙制造方式上的创造性;早期神祗来源大致和其他文化相仿,比如司掌某种自然力的自然神,或者被认定为某一族群共同祖先的始祖神,然而自中古以降,一种新型神祗开始大量涌现。

这些新神都是不久前还生活于人世的真实人物,因某种显赫成就或奇特经历而被认为拥有神力;认定神力的入门标准很低——担任过高官,参加过某次战役,遭受过冤屈,或者离奇死亡——总之,任何在大众眼里有点特别的地方(more...)

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7495
封侯拜爵的神仙们 辉格 2016年12月11日 中国民间信仰以其神仙繁多而著称,宋代仅湖州一地的寺观祠庙里供奉的神祗,有史料可查者即有92个,扣除名号重复者,还有50多个,粗略估算,全国各地的神祗数量大约介于乡镇数和村庄数之间,看来古代中国人『积极造神,见神即拜』的名声并非虚浪。 如此多神仙得到敬拜,还要归功于神仙来源的多样化,和大众在神仙制造方式上的创造性;早期神祗来源大致和其他文化相仿,比如司掌某种自然力的自然神,或者被认定为某一族群共同祖先的始祖神,然而自中古以降,一种新型神祗开始大量涌现。 这些新神都是不久前还生活于人世的真实人物,因某种显赫成就或奇特经历而被认为拥有神力;认定神力的入门标准很低——担任过高官,参加过某次战役,遭受过冤屈,或者离奇死亡——总之,任何在大众眼里有点特别的地方都可以让他们获得候选资格,但真正确立其神灵地位的,是『灵验』事迹,即有人在向他祈求佑助时得偿所愿。 在《变迁之神》一书中,人类学家韩森考察了此类神祗的兴起,发现其数量在宋代经历了爆发性增长,而之所以神界能容得下如此规模的神口增长,是因为他们都是地方性的,其神力作用半径不过数十里,各地若想有神可求,就得自己造一个,而同时,造神逻辑本身确保了新神的供给:灵验的随机性意味着总是不断会有旧神失宠,新神崛起。 有趣的是,帝国朝廷对这场民间造神运动颇为热心,从11世纪初起,宋廷便挑选一些信众认可度较高的地方神祗予以官方承认,编入祀典,许多还授予官爵名号,拨给公款用于立碑修庙;一旦某神获得这样的官方地位,地方官便有责任定期组织祭祀敬拜活动,甚至提供财政和劳役支持。 韩森注意到,从1075年起,为地方神仙封授官爵的做法大面积铺开,并在此后成为政府的一项常规职能,其规模甚大,每年封授数十位神仙,每次封授都要经历一个繁杂的流程,涉及尚书省、礼部和太常寺的众多衙门,还有地方政府的两轮灵验性查证,那么,朝廷为何要花费大量行政与财政资源来做这样一件看起来没有实际功效的事情呢? 要理解这一点,我们最好将它和帝国的另一项重要制度——科举——对照着看;表面上,科举只是为帝国选拔官员的(它也确实有这功能),但实际上,它最重要的功能是为全民提供一部开放、全面覆盖且贯通到底的社会上升阶梯,而在此之前,上升通道往往为数十个门阀豪族所垄断,其他人只能凭借战功、偶然的恩宠、内乱造成的重新洗牌等非经常性机会来谋求晋身。 科举的这一功能对赢取精英阶层的广泛效忠从而强化帝国权力起着极为根本的作用,它让人口中最富有、最有才智、最有野心的那些人将其视为实现抱负的好机会,而假如没有这样的机会,他们很可能去支持其他潜在的权力中心,或者以官方所不愿看到的方式施展抱负,因而对帝国权力构成威胁。 科举也是推行官方价值体系和历史叙事的工具,求取功名者心甘情愿接受和传播官方说辞,而一旦取得功名便成为这一体系的既得利益者因而有足够动机去维护它,并将其渗透植入到他们拥有巨大影响力的家族传统和地方文化中。 虽然只有百分之几的成年男性参与科举,取得功名者更少,但无论是巩固还是颠覆帝国权力基础,这都是最有能量的一群人,而且,科举功名带来的权力、财富、士绅特权,甚至仅仅是读写能力,都会将他们置于家族和地方社区的领袖地位,因而笼络他们就笼络了他们所在的家族和地方。 从唐代起,帝国通过封授土司对未归化地区实施羁縻政策,科举与士绅特权的结合,其实就是对政治结构中帝权难以直接通达的部分实施羁縻,通过士绅羁縻家族与地方,类似的,为地方神仙封授官爵,则是对民间信仰与崇拜活动的羁縻。 之所以神仙也需要羁縻,是因为,对于世俗权力,神是个危险的存在,每个神灵名下都可能凝聚起一套价值观,道德规范,行为准则,乃至行动纲领,其中每一样都可能与官方版本相冲突,都有潜力在权力竞争中成为敌方的动员与组织基础,特别是当它们被一个独立的僧侣团体所控制时,就更危险了。 凭借封授制度,朝廷有机会对神祗进行筛选、约束、引导、改造和控制,很明显,他们会竭力排除最危险的那些神,比如有着另一套行为准则的道德神,或一神教中极具动员力的排他性神,或有着现成经典因而其合法性可能被僧侣组织掌握的神,还有附带着行动纲领的弥赛亚,而最合他们胃口的,将是那些不具有全国性动员能力的地方神,以及能够提供现世佑助却又毫无道德要求的功利神,或许并非巧合的是,后两种恰是此后中国最流行的神灵。  
[译文]伊斯兰改革是否可能?

Can Islam Be Reformed? History and human nature say yes.
伊斯兰教能够被改革吗?历史和人的本性告诉我们:能。

作者:Daniel Pipes @ 2013-07-08
译者:Tankman
校对:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny)
来源:http://www.danielpipes.org/13033/can-islam-be-reformed

Commentary requested an internet supplement for this article and I chose the key passage on the Medieval Synthesis from my 1983 book, In the Path of God; Islam and Political Power. To read it, click here.
《评论》杂志要求我为这篇文章补充些互联网材料。我选择了我1983年出版的关于中世纪整合的书中关键的一段。该书名为《在神的道路上:伊斯兰和政治权力》。阅读点这里。

Islam currently represents a backward, aggressive, and violent force. Must it remain this way, or can it be reformed and become moderate, modern, and good-neighborly? Can Islamic authorities formulate an understanding of their religion that grants full rights to women and non-Muslims as well as freedom of conscience to Muslims, that accepts the basic principles of modern finance and jurisprudence, and that does not seek to impose Sharia law or establish a caliphate?

伊斯兰目前代表了一种倒退,激进和暴力的力量。它只能保持这种状态吗?或是能被改革,变得更加温和,现代且与邻为善呢?伊斯兰权威们能让他们的宗教给予妇女和非穆斯林完全的权利,并给穆斯林信仰自由,接受现代金融和司法的基本原则,而且不寻求强制实施伊斯兰教法或者建立哈里发国吗?

A growing body of analysts believe that no, the Muslim faith cannot do these things, that these features are inherent to Islam and immutably part of its makeup. Asked if she agrees with my formulation that “radical Islam is the problem, but moderate Islam is the solution,” the writer Ayaan Hirsi Ali replied, “He’s wrong. Sorry about that.” She and I stand in the same trench, fighting for the same goals and against the same opponents, but we disagree on this vital point.

越来越多的分析家认为不会,穆斯林信仰不能够做这些事情,这些特征内化在伊斯兰当中,成为其不可变结构的一部分。作家Ayaan Hirsi Ali【译注:一位索马里裔荷兰籍女权分子、无神论者、作家及政治人物,以批评伊斯兰教、反对割礼及女性生殖器切割而知名】一书的作者被问到是否同意我的说法“激进伊斯兰是问题,温和伊斯兰是解药”时,她说:“他是错的。对这点我感到遗憾。”她和我站在同一战壕,追求同一目标,和相同的敌人战斗,但是我们在这一要点上存在分歧。

My argument has two parts. First, the essentialist position of many analysts is wrong; and second, a reformed Islam can emerge.

我的论述有两部分。第一,很多分析家的本质主义立场是错误的;第二,革新的伊斯兰可以涌现 。

Arguing Against Essentialism
对本质主义的驳斥

To state that Islam can never change is to assert that the Koran and Hadith, which constitute the religion’s core, must always be understood in the same way. But to articulate this position is to reveal its error, for nothing human abides forever. Everything, including the reading of sacred texts, changes over time. Everything has a history. And everything has a future that will be unlike its past.

声称伊斯兰不可被改变,则意味着可兰经和圣训只能以同一种方式被理解,而这两者构成了该宗教的内核。但是这个论断显示了自身的谬误,因为人类不可能永远不变的遵循某个事情。一切,包括对圣典的解读,随着时间改变。一切事物都有自身的历史。一切事物都有一个与过去不同的未来。

Only by failing to account for human nature and by ignoring more than a millennium of actual changes in the Koran’s interpretation can one claim that the Koran has been understood identically over time. Changes have applied in such matters as jihad, slavery, usury, the principle of “no compulsion in religion,” and the role of women. Moreover, the many important interpreters of Islam over the past 1,400 years—ash-Shafi’i, al-Ghazali, Ibn Taymiya, Rumi, Shah Waliullah, and Ruhollah Khomeini come to mind—disagreed deeply among themselves about the content of the message of Islam.

只有不考虑人类本性,无视长达千年对可兰经阐释的变迁,一个人才能够宣称对可兰经的理解始终一成不变。 很多事都曾改变,像圣战,奴隶,高利贷,“宗教的非(more...)

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Can Islam Be Reformed? History and human nature say yes. 伊斯兰教能够被改革吗?历史和人的本性告诉我们:能。 作者:Daniel Pipes @ 2013-07-08 译者:Tankman 校对:Drunkplane(@Drunkplane-zny) 来源:http://www.danielpipes.org/13033/can-islam-be-reformed Commentary requested an internet supplement for this article and I chose the key passage on the Medieval Synthesis from my 1983 book, In the Path of God; Islam and Political Power. To read it, click here. 《评论》杂志要求我为这篇文章补充些互联网材料。我选择了我1983年出版的关于中世纪整合的书中关键的一段。该书名为《在神的道路上:伊斯兰和政治权力》。阅读点这里。 Islam currently represents a backward, aggressive, and violent force. Must it remain this way, or can it be reformed and become moderate, modern, and good-neighborly? Can Islamic authorities formulate an understanding of their religion that grants full rights to women and non-Muslims as well as freedom of conscience to Muslims, that accepts the basic principles of modern finance and jurisprudence, and that does not seek to impose Sharia law or establish a caliphate? 伊斯兰目前代表了一种倒退,激进和暴力的力量。它只能保持这种状态吗?或是能被改革,变得更加温和,现代且与邻为善呢?伊斯兰权威们能让他们的宗教给予妇女和非穆斯林完全的权利,并给穆斯林信仰自由,接受现代金融和司法的基本原则,而且不寻求强制实施伊斯兰教法或者建立哈里发国吗? A growing body of analysts believe that no, the Muslim faith cannot do these things, that these features are inherent to Islam and immutably part of its makeup. Asked if she agrees with my formulation that "radical Islam is the problem, but moderate Islam is the solution," the writer Ayaan Hirsi Ali replied, "He's wrong. Sorry about that." She and I stand in the same trench, fighting for the same goals and against the same opponents, but we disagree on this vital point. 越来越多的分析家认为不会,穆斯林信仰不能够做这些事情,这些特征内化在伊斯兰当中,成为其不可变结构的一部分。作家Ayaan Hirsi Ali【译注:一位索马里裔荷兰籍女权分子、无神论者、作家及政治人物,以批评伊斯兰教、反对割礼及女性生殖器切割而知名】一书的作者被问到是否同意我的说法“激进伊斯兰是问题,温和伊斯兰是解药”时,她说:“他是错的。对这点我感到遗憾。”她和我站在同一战壕,追求同一目标,和相同的敌人战斗,但是我们在这一要点上存在分歧。 My argument has two parts. First, the essentialist position of many analysts is wrong; and second, a reformed Islam can emerge. 我的论述有两部分。第一,很多分析家的本质主义立场是错误的;第二,革新的伊斯兰可以涌现 。 Arguing Against Essentialism 对本质主义的驳斥 To state that Islam can never change is to assert that the Koran and Hadith, which constitute the religion's core, must always be understood in the same way. But to articulate this position is to reveal its error, for nothing human abides forever. Everything, including the reading of sacred texts, changes over time. Everything has a history. And everything has a future that will be unlike its past. 声称伊斯兰不可被改变,则意味着可兰经和圣训只能以同一种方式被理解,而这两者构成了该宗教的内核。但是这个论断显示了自身的谬误,因为人类不可能永远不变的遵循某个事情。一切,包括对圣典的解读,随着时间改变。一切事物都有自身的历史。一切事物都有一个与过去不同的未来。 Only by failing to account for human nature and by ignoring more than a millennium of actual changes in the Koran's interpretation can one claim that the Koran has been understood identically over time. Changes have applied in such matters as jihad, slavery, usury, the principle of "no compulsion in religion," and the role of women. Moreover, the many important interpreters of Islam over the past 1,400 years—ash-Shafi'i, al-Ghazali, Ibn Taymiya, Rumi, Shah Waliullah, and Ruhollah Khomeini come to mind—disagreed deeply among themselves about the content of the message of Islam. 只有不考虑人类本性,无视长达千年对可兰经阐释的变迁,一个人才能够宣称对可兰经的理解始终一成不变。 很多事都曾改变,像圣战,奴隶,高利贷,“宗教的非强制原则以及妇女的角色。而且,我们容易想到过去的1400年,很多重要的伊斯兰诠释者—— ash-Shafi'i,al-Ghazali,Ibn Taymiya,Rumi,Shah Waliullah和Ruhollah Khomeini彼此对伊斯兰教导的内容有很大分歧。 However central the Koran and Hadith may be, they are not the totality of the Muslim experience; the accumulated experience of Muslim peoples from Morocco to Indonesia and beyond matters no less. To dwell on Islam's scriptures is akin to interpreting the United States solely through the lens of the Constitution; ignoring the country's history would lead to a distorted understanding. 可兰经和圣训也许是中心,而不是穆斯林经验的全部;从摩洛哥到印尼以及其他地方的穆斯林社群积累的经验也很重要。只专注于伊斯兰的文本就像是只从宪法角度解释美国;忽略了这个国家的历史,会导致认知的扭曲。 Put differently, medieval Muslim civilization excelled and today's Muslims lag behind in nearly every index of achievement. But if things can get worse, they can also get better. Likewise, in my own career, I witnessed Islamism rise from minimal beginnings when I entered the field in 1969 to the great powers it enjoys today; if Islamism can thus grow, it can also decline. 换一种说法就是,中世纪穆斯林文明是杰出的,今天的穆斯林在衡量成就的每个指标上几乎都是落后的。但是如果事情能变得更糟,它们也能变得更好。就像我自己的事业,1969年我进入该领域时,我见证了伊斯兰主义从很小的规模兴起,到今天享有着巨大能量;如果伊斯兰主义可以壮大,那么它也可能衰落。 How might that happen? 这种变化可能会如何发生呢? The Medieval Synthesis 中世纪整合 Key to Islam's role in public life is Sharia and the many untenable demands it makes on Muslims. Running a government with the minimal taxes permitted by Sharia has proved to be unsustainable; and how can one run a financial system without charging interest? A penal system that requires four men to view an adulterous act in flagrante delicto is impractical. Sharia's prohibition on warfare against fellow Muslims is impossible for all to live up to; indeed, roughly three-quarters of all warfare waged by Muslims has been directed against other Muslims. Likewise, the insistence on perpetual jihad against non-Muslims demands too much. 伊斯兰作用于公共生活的关键是伊斯兰教法及其加诸于穆斯林身上的不合理要求。用伊斯兰教法允许的最小税负来运作政府被证明是不可持续的;而且怎么能运作一个不要求利息的金融系统呢?一个刑罚体系,要求四个男人在作案现场目睹一起通奸事件是不现实的。沙利亚禁止穆斯林对穆斯林同胞发动战争,遵循这禁令是不可能的;实际上,穆斯林发起的战争中,约四分之三是针对其他穆斯林。类似地,坚持对非穆斯林的永久性圣战也实在要求过分了。 To get around these and other unrealistic demands, premodern Muslims developed certain legal fig leaves that allowed for the relaxation of Islamic provisions without directly violating them. Jurists came up with hiyal (tricks) and other means by which the letter of the law could be fulfilled while negating its spirit. For example, various mechanisms were developed to live in harmony with non-Muslim states. There is also the double sale (bai al-inah) of an item, which permits the purchaser to pay a disguised form of interest. Wars against fellow Muslims were renamed jihad. 为了回避这些或者其他一些不现实的要求,前现代的穆斯林发展了一些合理化的做法,允许放松一些伊斯兰法条,而不直接违背它们。法务人员使用hiyal(花招)和其他方式,遵循法律的形式,同时否定其实质。比如,为了和谐的生活在非穆斯林国家,很多技巧被发展出来。还有重复售卖(bai al-inah)意味着允许购买者支付隐性利息。对穆斯林同胞的战争则被重新命名为吉哈德。 This compromise between Sharia and reality amounted to what I dubbed Islam's "medieval synthesis" in my book In the Path of God (1983). This synthesis translated Islam from a body of abstract, infeasible demands into a workable system. In practical terms, it toned down Sharia and made the code of law operational. Sharia could now be sufficiently applied without Muslims being subjected to its more stringent demands. Kecia Ali, of Boston University, notes the dramatic contrast between formal and applied law in Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam, quoting other specialists: 沙利亚和现实之间的妥协契合了我的著作《在神的道路上》(1983)中的伊斯兰“中世纪整合”的概念。这一整合把伊斯兰从一套抽象,不切实际的要求,翻译成可以被实行的体系。在实际中,它减低了沙利亚的力度,使得法条可以操作。沙利亚现在能够充分被实行,同时穆斯林不会被其更加严苛的要求束缚。波士顿大学的Kecia Ali,在《Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam》一书中指出了正式和实用法律之间鲜明的对照。他引用了其他专家的话: One major way in which studies of law have proceeded has been to "compare doctrine with the actual practice of the court." As one scholar discussing scriptural and legal texts notes, "Social patterns were in great contrast to the 'official' picture presented by these 'formal' sources." Studies often juxtapose flexible and relatively fair court outcomes with an undifferentiated and sometimes harshly patriarchal textual tradition of jurisprudence. We are shown proof of "the flexibility within Islamic law that is often portrayed as stagnant and draconian." 律法研究的一个主要方式是“比较教条和法庭实践”。当学者讨论经文和法律书注记时,“社会上的模式和这些‘正式’来源所呈现的‘官方’图景反差很大。”研究经常把灵活和相对公平的法庭判决和没有变通、有时非常宗法制的传统法律文本并列。这就是“常被描述为顽固专横的伊斯兰法的内在灵活性。” While the medieval synthesis worked over the centuries, it never overcame a fundamental weakness: It is not comprehensively rooted in or derived from the foundational, constitutional texts of Islam. Based on compromises and half measures, it always remained vulnerable to challenge by purists. Indeed, premodern Muslim history featured many such challenges, including the Almohad movement in 12th-century North Africa and the Wahhabi movement in 18th-century Arabia. In each case, purist efforts eventually subsided and the medieval synthesis reasserted itself, only to be challenged anew by purists. This alternation between pragmatism and purism characterizes Muslim history, contributing to its instability. 虽然中世纪整合持续了几个世纪,它并未克服一个基本的弱点:它并没有全面的植根于伊斯兰的有宪法意味的基础文本,或者从其中独立出来。基于妥协和折衷,面对原教旨主义者的挑战,它仍然是脆弱的。实际上,前现代穆斯林历史总是凸显这样的挑战,包括十二世纪北非的穆瓦希德运动和十八世纪阿拉伯的瓦哈比运动。每个例子中,原教旨主义的努力最终被软化,中世纪整合重新回到轨道,而后被新的原教旨主义挑战。实用主义和原教旨主义的更替是穆斯林历史的特色,助长了其不稳定性。 The Challenge of Modernity 现代性的挑战 The de facto solution offered by the medieval synthesis broke down with the arrival of modernity imposed by the Europeans, conventionally dated to Napoleon's attack on Egypt in 1798. This challenge pulled most Muslims in opposite directions over the next two centuries, to Westernization or to Islamization. 中世纪整合所提供的实用主义的解决方案被欧洲强加的现代化因素打断,传统观点来看,这可以追溯到拿破仑在1798年对埃及的入侵。这一挑战在接下来的两个世纪中,把大多数穆斯林拉向了两个相反的方向:西方化或是伊斯兰化。 Muslims impressed with Western achievements sought to minimize Sharia and replace it with Western ways in such areas as the nonestablishment of religion and equality of rights for women and non-Muslims. The founder of modern Turkey, Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938), symbolizes this effort. Until about 1970, it appeared to be the inevitable Muslim destiny, with resistance to Westernization looking rearguard and futile. 西方的成就给一些穆斯林留下了深刻印象,他们试图削弱伊斯兰教法,代之以同类领域的西方做法,比如不利用法律确立宗教,妇女和非穆斯林拥有平等权利。现代土耳其的缔造者——凯末尔·阿塔图尔克 (1881-1938)代表了这种努力。在1970年前,这似乎是穆斯林不可避免的命运,对抗西方化的努力看起来被动无力。 But that resistance proved deep and ultimately triumphant. Atatürk had few successors and his Republic of Turkey is moving back toward Sharia. Westernization, it turned out, looked stronger than it really was because it tended to attract visible and vocal elites while the masses generally held back. 但是这种抵抗被证明根基深厚并最终取得了胜利。阿塔图尔克的后继者不多,而他的土耳其共和国现在正退回伊斯兰教法。说到底,西方化表面上看起来强大,实则不然,因为它倾向于吸引曝光度高,有话语权的精英,而广大民众则被压制。 Starting around 1930, the reluctant elements began organizing themselves and developing their own positive program, especially in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, and India. Rejecting Westernization and all its works, they argued for the full and robust application of Sharia such as they imagined had been the case in the earliest days of Islam. 从1930年代起,抗拒因素开始组织起来,发展他们自己的力量,尤其是在阿尔及利亚,埃及,伊朗,和印度。他们拒绝西方化及其所有的成果,呼吁要按照他们想象中的早期伊斯兰历史那般,坚决完全的实施伊斯兰教法。 Though rejecting the West, these movements—which are called Islamist—modeled themselves on the surging totalitarian ideologies of their time, Fascism and Communism. Islamists borrowed many assumptions from these ideologies, such as the superiority of the state over the individual, the acceptability of brute force, and the need for a cosmic confrontation with Western civilization. They also quietly borrowed technology, especially military and medical, from the West. 虽然排斥西方,这些被称为伊斯兰主义的运动,依靠同一时期涌现的极权主义意识形态塑造了自身,比如法西斯主义和共产主义。伊斯兰主义者借用很多这些意识形态的假设,比如国家优先于个人,可以接受暴力斗争,和在全世界和西方文明进行斗争的必要性。他们也静静地从西方借用技术,尤其是军事和医疗方面。 Through creative, hard work, Islamist forces quietly gained strength over the next half century, finally bursting into power and prominence with the Iranian revolution of 1978–79 led by the anti-Atatürk, Ayatollah Khomeini (1902-89). This dramatic event, and its achieved goal of creating an Islamic order, widely inspired Islamists, who in the subsequent 35 years have made great progress, transforming societies and applying Sharia in novel and extreme ways. 通过创造性的努力,伊斯兰主义者的力量在接下来的半个世纪静静增长,最终在1978-79年由阿塔图尔克的反对者,霍梅尼 (1902-89) 领导的伊朗革命中,显出了爆发性的能力和优势。这个戏剧性的事件,和其达到的目标——创造一种伊斯兰的秩序,在伊斯兰主义者中影响广泛。他们在接下来35年中有了巨大进步,用各种创新且极端的方式,变革社会,实行伊斯兰教法。 For example, in Iran, the Shiite regime has hanged homosexuals from cranes and forced Iranians in Western dress to drink from latrine cans, and in Afghanistan, the Taliban regime has torched girls' schools and music stores. The Islamists' influence has reached the West itself, where one finds an increasing number of women wearing hijabs, niqabs, and burqas. 比如,在伊朗,什叶派统治者用起重机吊死同性恋者,并强迫穿西方服饰的伊朗人喝茅厕里的液体。在阿富汗,塔利班统治者烧毁女生学校和音乐店。伊斯兰主义者的影响波及到了西方自身,你在西方可以发现越来越多的妇女穿戴面纱,头巾和罩袍。 Although spawned as a totalitarian model, Islamism has shown much greater tactical adaptability than either Fascism or Communism. The latter two ideologies rarely managed to go beyond violence and coercion. But Islamism, led by figures such as Turkey's Premier Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954-) and his Justice and Development Party (AKP), has explored nonrevolutionary forms of Islamism. Since it was legitimately voted into office in 2002, the AKP gradually has undermined Turkish secularism with remarkable deftness by working within the country's established democratic structures, practicing good government, and not provoking the wrath of the military, long the guardian of Turkish secularism. 虽然脱胎于一个极权主义模型,相比法西斯和共产主义,伊斯兰主义表现出远为优越的战术灵活性。前两者很少试图超越暴力和强制手段。而伊斯兰运动,被诸如土耳其总理埃尔多安 (1954-) 之类的人物和他的正义发展党(AKP)领导着,已经探索出了伊斯兰主义的非革命形式。自从它在2002年合法地通过选举上台,AKP就用十分纯熟的手腕,借助该国已经建立的民主制度,和良好的施政表现,逐渐削弱土耳其的世俗化力量,而且没有激起土耳其世俗主义的长期守护者——军队的强力反弹。 The Islamists are on the march today, but their ascendance is recent and offers no guarantees of longevity. Indeed, like other radical utopian ideologies, Islamism will lose its appeal and decline in power. Certainly the 2009 and 2013 revolts against Islamist regimes in Iran and Egypt, respectively, point in that direction. 伊斯兰主义者如今风头正健,但是它们的势头并不是由来已久,也并不保证能持续下去。实际上,像其他激进乌托邦意识形态一样,伊斯兰主义将会失去它的吸引力,其力量也会衰减。伊朗和埃及分别在2009年和2013年对伊斯兰主义统治的反抗,明确体现了这点。 Toward a Modern Synthesis 通向一个现代的整合 If Islamism is to be defeated, anti-Islamist Muslims must develop an alternative vision of Islam and explanation for what it means to be a Muslim. In doing so, they can draw on the past, especially the reform efforts from the span of 1850 to 1950, to develop a "modern synthesis" comparable to the medieval model. This synthesis would choose among Shari precepts and render Islam compatible with modern values. It would accept gender equality, coexist peacefully with unbelievers, and reject the aspiration of a universal caliphate, among other steps. 若要打败伊斯兰主义,反伊斯兰主义的穆斯林必须发展出一套替代性的伊斯兰图景,来解释成为一个穆斯林意味着什么。要做到这点,他们可以回溯历史,尤其是在1850年到1950年间的改革努力,对照“中世纪整合”,来发展出一套“现代整合”。这种整合将会在伊斯兰教法戒律中做出选择并使伊斯兰与现代观念兼容。它将可能接受性别平等,和不信伊斯兰者和平共存,并在各步骤中排斥建立普世哈里发国的冲动。 Here, Islam can profitably be compared with the two other major monotheistic religions. A half millennium ago, Jews, Christians, and Muslims all broadly agreed that enforced labor was acceptable and that paying interest on borrowed money was not. Eventually, after bitter and protracted debates, Jews and Christians changed their minds on these two issues; today, no Jewish or Christian voices endorse slavery or condemn the payment of reasonable interest on loans. 在此,把伊斯兰教和其他两大一神教相比较,不无益处。五个世纪前,犹太教徒,基督教徒和穆斯林全部大致同意奴隶是可以被接受的,借贷收利息则不被允许。最终,经过了苦涩和反复的辩论,犹太教徒和基督徒改变了他们在这两件事情上的观点;今天,没有犹太教或是基督教人士会支持蓄奴或是谴责给贷款支付利息。 Among Muslims, however, these debates have only begun. Even if formally banned in Qatar in 1952, Saudi Arabia in 1962, and Mauritania in 1980, slavery still exists in these and other majority-Muslim countries (especially Sudan and Pakistan). Some Islamic authorities even claim that a pious Muslim must endorse slavery. Vast financial institutions worth possibly as much as $1 trillion have developed over the past 40 years to enable observant Muslims to pretend to avoid either paying or receiving interest on money, ("pretend" because the Islamic banks merely disguise interest with subterfuges such as service fees.) 然而在穆斯林当中,这些辩论才刚刚开始。即使卡塔尔在1952年,沙特阿拉伯在1962年,毛里塔尼亚在1980年,官方禁止了蓄奴,奴隶制仍然在这些地方和其他以穆斯林为多数人口的国家存在(尤其是苏丹和巴基斯坦)。一些伊斯兰权威甚至声称一个敬虔的穆斯林必须支持奴隶制。很多金融机构可能市值达一万亿美元,并已经发展了四十年来让穆斯林可以假装避免支付或接受货币利息,(“假装”因为穆斯林银行们仅仅用服务费等术语来遮掩利息这一名目。) Reformist Muslims must do better than their medieval predecessors and ground their interpretation in both scripture and the sensibilities of the age. For Muslims to modernize their religion they must emulate their fellow monotheists and adapt their religion with regard to slavery and interest, the treatment of women, the right to leave Islam, legal procedure, and much else. 穆斯林改革主义者必须比他们中世纪的前辈做得更好,并把他们的表述植根在文本和时代潮流当中。当穆斯林试图现代化他们的宗教,他们必须模仿其他一神教,改变自己宗教在蓄奴,利息,妇女权益,背教自由,司法程序和很多其他方面的立场。 When a reformed, modern Islam emerges it will no longer endorse unequal female rights, the dhimmi status, jihad, or suicide terrorism, nor will it require the death penalty for adultery, breaches of family honor, blasphemy, and apostasy. 当一个改革的,现代的伊斯兰涌现,它将不会再支持不平等的妇女权益,统治异教徒的观念,圣战,或者自杀性恐怖主义,它也不会要求对通奸,危害家族荣誉,渎神和背教者处以死刑。 Already in this young century, a few positive signs in this direction can be discerned. Note some developments concerning women: 在这一新的世纪,一些积极的苗头已初露端倪。有关妇女的一些进步如下:
  • Saudi Arabia's Shura Council has responded to rising public outrage over child marriagesby setting the age of majority at 18. Though this doesn't end child marriages, it moves toward abolishing the practice.
  • 沙特阿拉伯的协商会议回应了公众对童婚的愤怒,把成年的年龄定为18岁。虽然这没有终结童婚,但向着禁止这一行为迈进了一步。
  • Turkish clerics have agreed to let menstruating women attend mosque and pray next to men.
  • 土耳其神职人员已经同意,让经期的妇女参加清真寺礼拜,并且和男人一起祷告。
  • The Iranian government has nearly banned the stoning of convicted adulterers.
  • 伊朗政府已接近于禁止对通奸罪施以石刑。
  • Women in Iran have won broader rights to sue their husbands for divorce.
  • 伊朗妇女在诉讼离婚方面赢得了更广泛的权利。
  • A conference of Muslim scholars in Egypt deemed clitoridectomies contrary to Islam and, in fact, punishable.
  • 穆斯林学者在埃及召开了一个会议,认为阴蒂割除违背伊斯兰,事实上应该被惩罚。
  • A key Indian Muslim institution, Darul Uloom Deoband, issued a fatwa against polygamy.
  • 一个著名的印度穆斯林机构 Darul Uloom Deoband发表了一项伊斯兰释法,反对多妻制。
Other notable developments, not specifically about women, include: 其他显著进步,不一定局限于妇女权益方面,包括:
  • The Saudi government abolished jizya (the practice of enforcing a poll tax on non-Muslims).
  • 沙特政府终止了Jizya(向非穆斯林征收人头税)。
  • An Iranian court ordered the family of a murdered Christian to receive the same compensation as that of a Muslim victim.
  • 一个伊朗法庭,判决被谋杀的基督徒的亲属得到和穆斯林受害者一样多的赔偿。
  • Scholars meeting at the International Islamic Fiqh Academy in Sharjah have started to debate and challenge the call for apostates to be executed.
  • 学者们在位于沙迦的国际伊斯兰教律学院开会,开始就处决背教者展开辩论。
All the while, individual reformers churn out ideas, if not yet for adoption then to stimulate thought. For example, Nadin al-Badir, a Saudi female journalist, provocatively suggested that Muslim women have the same right as men to marry up to four spouses. She prompted a thunderstorm, including threats of lawsuits and angry denunciations, but she spurred a needed debate, one unimaginable in prior times. 同时,倾向于改革的人士不断推出新的想法,如果不是着眼于改进,那就是从模仿着手。比如Nadine al-Badir,一个沙特女记者,大胆建议穆斯林妇女和男人拥有相同的权利,和四个配偶结婚。她引发了一场风暴,包括诉讼威胁和愤怒谴责,但她的确引发了一场亟需的辩论,在以前时代这是无法想象的。 Like its medieval precursor, the modern synthesis will remain vulnerable to attack by purists, who can point to Muhammad's example and insist on no deviation from it. But, having witnessed what Islamism, whether violent or not, has wrought, there is reason to hope that Muslims will reject the dream of reestablishing a medieval order and be open to compromise with modern ways. Islam need not be a fossilized medieval mentality; it is what today's Muslims make of it. 和其中世纪的先行者一样,面对原教旨人士的攻击,现代整合将仍然是脆弱的。原教旨人士可以拿默罕默德做例子,然后坚持不能偏离他的做法。但是,已经见证了暴力或是非暴力的伊斯兰主义所产生的恶果,有理由相信穆斯林会拒绝重建一种中世纪秩序的梦想,并对向现代化妥协持开放态度。伊斯兰不一定是一成不变的中世纪观念;它也取决于当下穆斯林的实践。 Policy Implications 政策含义 What can those, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, who oppose Sharia, the caliphate, and the horrors of jihad, do to advance their aims? 反对伊斯兰教法,哈里发国,和可怕的圣战的穆斯林和非穆斯林该做什么来推进他们的目标呢? For anti-Islamist Muslims, the great burden is to develop not just an alternative vision to the Islamist one but an alternative movement to Islamism. The Islamists reached their position of power and influence through dedication and hard work, through generosity and selflessness. Anti-Islamists must also labor, probably for decades, to develop an ideology as coherent and compelling as that of the Islamists, and then spread it. Scholars interpreting sacred scriptures and leaders mobilizing followers have central roles in this process. 对反伊斯兰主义的穆斯林,最大的责任是不光要发展出一套图景来代替伊斯兰主义,而且要发展出一个运动来取代它。伊斯兰主义者通过献身和努力,通过慷慨和无私,达到了目前的能量和影响力。反伊斯兰主义者,必须也经过可能是数十年的努力,发展出一套和伊斯兰主义一样自洽并有吸引力的意识形态,然后推广它。在这个过程中,解释经文的学者和鼓动群众的领袖有着中心的位置。 Non-Muslims can help a modern Islam move forward in two ways: first, by resisting all forms of Islamism—not just the brutal extremism of an Osama bin Laden, but also the stealthy, lawful, political movements such as Turkey's AKP. Erdoğan is less ferocious than Bin Laden, but he is more effective and no less dangerous. Whoever values free speech, equality before the law, and other human rights denied or diminished by Sharia must consistently oppose any hint of Islamism. 非穆斯林可以通过两种方式帮助现代化的伊斯兰:第一,坚持反对所有形式的伊斯兰主义——不仅仅是残暴的极端主义者奥萨马·本·拉登,也可以是隐秘鬼祟,表面合法的政治性运动,如土耳其的AKP。埃尔多安也许不如本·拉登残忍,但他却更有效,危险性也就一点不比后者小。伊斯兰教法否认或削弱了言论自由,法律面前人人平等和其他人权,珍视它们的人必须不懈地反抗伊斯兰主义的各种苗头。 Second, non-Muslims should support moderate and Westernizing anti-Islamists. Such figures are weak and fractured today and face a daunting task, but they do exist, and they represent the only hope for defeating the menace of global jihad and Islamic supremacism, then replacing it with an Islam that does not threaten civilization. 第二,非穆斯林应该支持温和和西方化的反伊斯兰主义穆斯林。今天,这些人物弱小零散,且面对着艰巨的任务,但是他们确实存在,他们代表了击败全球性圣战和伊斯兰霸权,代之以一种不威胁文明的伊斯兰的唯一希望。 Daniel Pipes is president of the Middle East Forum. Daniel Pipes是中东论坛的总裁。 July 7, 2013 update: Jeff Jacoby does an excellent job of summarizing this article in his Boston Globe column today under the title "What Is Islam?" 2013年7月7日更新: Jeff Jacoby在他的《波士顿环球》专栏上很好的总结了这篇文章,标题为“什么是伊斯兰”。 Oct. 1, 2013 update: Six Commentary readers reply to this article and I then respond to them at "Islam's Future." 2013年10月1日更新:六位《评论》杂志读者回复了这篇文章,我回应以“伊斯兰的未来”。 Apr. 10, 2014 update: Despite her 2007 statement quoted in the 2nd paragraph above, about the impossibility of a moderate Islam, Ayaan Hirsi Ali today wrote that "Both Christianity and Judaism have had their eras of reform. I would argue that the time has come for a Muslim Reformation." So, perhaps she is coming around to agree with me after all. 2014年4月10日更新:虽然她在2007年的评论中引用了上述文章的第二段,并说温和伊斯兰是不可能的。但是Ayaan Hirsi Ali 今天写道,“基督教和犹太教也有它们的改革时代。我能够说伊斯兰教宗教改革的年代已经到来。”所以,她也许开始接受我的观点了。 Feb, 4, 2016 update: I tweeted today that "When it comes to #Islam, amateurs talk texts, pros talk history." 2016年2月4日更新:我发了推文“当谈到伊斯兰,门外汉讨论文本,内行讨论历史。” Feb. 24, 2016 update: Perhaps symbolic of Islamic banking's illusory promise, here is the reality of the Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank's headquarters (as photographed by me). It's a pale and desultory version of the plans shown above. 2016年2月24日更新:这是我拍摄的阿布扎比伊斯兰银行的现实中的照片,也许这象征了伊斯兰银行业的宏伟计划的不切实际。相对于文章中的计划,这版本似乎并不让人激动。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

保守派的污点

【2016-09-09】

@海德沙龙  《一场轰轰烈烈的反娼妓战争》 无论从哪个方面都很难论证禁娼的合理性,在性交易合法化的地方(比如澳洲),它并未带来风气败坏和道德沦丧,相反,禁娼总是恶化妓女的处境,将其推入黑帮之手,所以禁娼法已逐渐失去支持,然而在过去十几年,禁娼运动又戴着一副新面具卷土重来……

@whigzhou: 宗教保守派和进步主义者在这件事情上结成了奇特的联盟,这是宗教保守派的一个污点,和他们在禁酒和禁毒问题上的污点类似(more...)

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7613
【2016-09-09】 @海德沙龙  《一场轰轰烈烈的反娼妓战争》 无论从哪个方面都很难论证禁娼的合理性,在性交易合法化的地方(比如澳洲),它并未带来风气败坏和道德沦丧,相反,禁娼总是恶化妓女的处境,将其推入黑帮之手,所以禁娼法已逐渐失去支持,然而在过去十几年,禁娼运动又戴着一副新面具卷土重来…… @whigzhou: 宗教保守派和进步主义者在这件事情上结成了奇特的联盟,这是宗教保守派的一个污点,和他们在禁酒和禁毒问题上的污点类似,这不禁让人感慨,基督徒什么时候又堕落到需要国家强制力来执行他们的教规了? @whigzhou: 相比之下,有些教派(比如阿米绪人)就从不诉求于国家强制,他们对自己的德行更有信心,也更值得得尊敬  
基督徒数量增长最快的10个国家

【2016-09-06】

@whigzhou: 好像很少有人提到这个事实:基督徒数量增长最快的10个国家里,有6个在阿拉伯半岛,仅仅是regression to mean吗?不太像

 

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【2016-09-06】 @whigzhou: 好像很少有人提到这个事实:基督徒数量增长最快的10个国家里,有6个在阿拉伯半岛,仅仅是regression to mean吗?不太像  
[译文]什么鸭玩意儿!

What the Duck?
你鸭的!

作者:Drew Magary @ 2013-11-17
译者:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy)
校对:babyface_claire(@许你疯不许你傻)
来源:GQ,http://www.gq.com/story/duck-dynasty-phil-robertson

How in the world did a family of squirrel-eating, Bible-thumping, catchphrase-spouting duck hunters become the biggest TV stars in America? And what will they do now that they have 14 million fervent disciples? Our Drew Magary toured the Louisiana backwater with Phil Robertson and the Duck Dynasty gang to find out.

究竟是出于什么缘故,才会使得这样一个捕食松鼠、大肆宣扬圣经、口头禅滔滔不绝的猎鸭大家庭成了全美最耀眼的电视明星?现拥1400万狂热信徒,他们又会做些什么?为解答这些问题,本刊记者Drew Magary在路易斯安那的穷乡僻壤走访了Phil Robertson及《鸭子王朝》一伙人。

……

Let’s start with the crossbow, because the crossbow is huge. I’m sitting in the passenger seat of a camo-painted ATV, rumbling through the northern Louisiana backwoods with Phil Robertson, founder of the Duck Commander company, patriarch at the heart of A&E’s smash reality hit Duck Dynasty, and my tour guide for the afternoon.

首先说说手弩,因为它实在太大了。当时我坐在一辆涂了迷彩的全地形车的副驾位置上,跟Phil Robertson一起颠簸在路易斯安那北部的老林中。Robertson是“鸭司令”公司的创始人,A & E有线台极为轰动的热播真人秀《鸭子王朝》的核心家长,也是我本次午后之旅的导游。

There are seat belts in this ATV, but it doesn’t look like they’ve ever been used. Phil is not wearing one. I am not wearing one, because I don’t want Phil to think I’m a pussy. (Too late!) The crossbow—a Barnett model equipped with a steel-tipped four-blade broadhead arrow—is perched on the dash between us. It looks like you could shoot through a goddamn mountain with it.

车上配有安全带,但似乎从来没人用过。Phil没系。我也没系,因为我可不想让Phil看扁。(然而太迟了……)手弩就趴在我俩之间的仪表板上。那是只巴内特弩,装备有一根箭头钢制、四向开刃的阔首箭。它看上去会让你觉得拿着它就可以他妈的射穿一座山。

“That’ll bury up in you and kill you dead,” Phil says.

“这东西能把你射穿,彻底干掉你”,Phil说。

The bow is cocked and loaded, just in case a deer stumbles in front of us and we need to do a redneck drive-by on the poor bastard, but the safety is on. SAFETY FIRST. Still, Phil warns me, “You don’t want to be bumping that.”

弓已装好,扳机已扣上,万一有野鹿突然跑到我们的车子面前,那我们就需要在这倒霉蛋身上玩一场红脖式飞车射击了。但保险栓还是拉上了。安全第一!不过,Phil还是告诫我,“你最好还是不要碰到它。”

As we drive out into the woods, past a sign that reads parish maintenance ends, Phil is telling me all about the land around us and how the animals are a glorious gift from God and how blowing their heads off is part of His plan for us.

随着我们驱车驶入丛林,把一个写着“县政府维护界”的牌子甩在后面,Phil(more...)

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7290
What the Duck? 你鸭的! 作者:Drew Magary @ 2013-11-17 译者:沈沉(@你在何地-sxy) 校对:babyface_claire(@许你疯不许你傻) 来源:GQ,http://www.gq.com/story/duck-dynasty-phil-robertson How in the world did a family of squirrel-eating, Bible-thumping, catchphrase-spouting duck hunters become the biggest TV stars in America? And what will they do now that they have 14 million fervent disciples? Our Drew Magary toured the Louisiana backwater with Phil Robertson and the Duck Dynasty gang to find out. 究竟是出于什么缘故,才会使得这样一个捕食松鼠、大肆宣扬圣经、口头禅滔滔不绝的猎鸭大家庭成了全美最耀眼的电视明星?现拥1400万狂热信徒,他们又会做些什么?为解答这些问题,本刊记者Drew Magary在路易斯安那的穷乡僻壤走访了Phil Robertson及《鸭子王朝》一伙人。

……

Let's start with the crossbow, because the crossbow is huge. I'm sitting in the passenger seat of a camo-painted ATV, rumbling through the northern Louisiana backwoods with Phil Robertson, founder of the Duck Commander company, patriarch at the heart of A&E's smash reality hit Duck Dynasty, and my tour guide for the afternoon. 首先说说手弩,因为它实在太大了。当时我坐在一辆涂了迷彩的全地形车的副驾位置上,跟Phil Robertson一起颠簸在路易斯安那北部的老林中。Robertson是“鸭司令”公司的创始人,A & E有线台极为轰动的热播真人秀《鸭子王朝》的核心家长,也是我本次午后之旅的导游。 There are seat belts in this ATV, but it doesn't look like they've ever been used. Phil is not wearing one. I am not wearing one, because I don't want Phil to think I'm a pussy. (Too late!) The crossbow—a Barnett model equipped with a steel-tipped four-blade broadhead arrow—is perched on the dash between us. It looks like you could shoot through a goddamn mountain with it. 车上配有安全带,但似乎从来没人用过。Phil没系。我也没系,因为我可不想让Phil看扁。(然而太迟了……)手弩就趴在我俩之间的仪表板上。那是只巴内特弩,装备有一根箭头钢制、四向开刃的阔首箭。它看上去会让你觉得拿着它就可以他妈的射穿一座山。 "That'll bury up in you and kill you dead," Phil says. “这东西能把你射穿,彻底干掉你”,Phil说。 The bow is cocked and loaded, just in case a deer stumbles in front of us and we need to do a redneck drive-by on the poor bastard, but the safety is on. SAFETY FIRST. Still, Phil warns me, "You don't want to be bumping that." 弓已装好,扳机已扣上,万一有野鹿突然跑到我们的车子面前,那我们就需要在这倒霉蛋身上玩一场红脖式飞车射击了。但保险栓还是拉上了。安全第一!不过,Phil还是告诫我,“你最好还是不要碰到它。” As we drive out into the woods, past a sign that reads parish maintenance ends, Phil is telling me all about the land around us and how the animals are a glorious gift from God and how blowing their heads off is part of His plan for us. 随着我们驱车驶入丛林,把一个写着“县政府维护界”的牌子甩在后面,Phil一路都在跟我介绍周边的土地,说动物们是上帝赠与的极好礼物,又说把它们爆头是他为我们此行准备的计划之一。 "Look at this," he says, gesturing to the surrounding wilderness. "The Almighty gave us this. Genesis 9 is where the animals went wild, and God gave them wildness. After the flood, that's when he made animals wild. Up until that time, everybody was vegetarian. After the flood, he said, 'I'm giving you everything now. Animals are wild.'" “看看这个”,他说,手指着我们周围的荒野。“上帝把它赐予了我们。动物们走向野生是在《创世纪》第9章,上帝赐予了它们荒野。是在洪水之后,他才让动物们野生的。直到那时以前,所有人都吃素。洪水以后,上帝就说,‘我把一切都赐予你们。动物是野生的。’” There's a fly parked on Phil's long beard. It's been there the whole ride, and I desperately want to pluck it out, but I decide against it. Along with the crossbow, there's a loaded .22-caliber rifle rattling around in the footwell. Phil的长胡子上停着一只苍蝇。整个行驶过程中,它一直都在那儿,我极度想要把它抓走,但最终还是决定不这么干。除了手弩之外,车上还有支已经装上弹药的点22口径步枪在脚坑里一直晃荡。 And yet, much like the 14 million Americans who Nielsen says tune in to Duck Dynasty every week—over 2 million more than the audience for the Breaking Bad finale—I am comfortable here in these woods with Phil and his small cache of deadly weaponry. He is welcoming and gracious. 不过,跟Nielsen所说的每周都收看《鸭子王朝》的1400万美国人(比《绝命毒师》大结局的观众还要多200万)一样,我跟Phil及他的一小批致命武器藏品一起呆在丛林中时,感到非常舒适。他热心好客、和蔼可亲。 He is a man who preaches the gospel of the outdoors and, to my great envy, practices what he preaches. He spends most of his time out here, daydreaming about what he calls a "pristine earth": a world where nothing gets in the way of nature or the hunters who lovingly maintain it. No cities. No buildings. No highways. 他是一个户外运动的布道者,而且令我非常嫉妒的是,他实践了他所传之道。他大部分时候都呆在这里,梦想存在一个他称为“原始地球”的地方:整个世界没有任何东西会妨碍自然,或者妨碍那些细心维护自然的猎人。没有城市。没有建筑。没有高速公路。 Oh, and no sinners, too. So here's where things get a bit uncomfortable. Phil calls himself a Bible-thumper, and holy shit, he thumps that Bible hard enough to ring the bell at a county-fair test of strength. If you watch Duck Dynasty, you can hear plenty of it in the nondenominational supper-table prayer the family recites at the end of every episode, and in the show's no-cussing, no-blaspheming tone. 哦,还得没有罪人。说到这里事情就有点尴尬了。Phil称自己是个圣经狂人,而且我的神啊,他宣扬圣经的力度都可以把县农贸市场的力量测试钟给敲响了。如果你也看《鸭子王朝》,那你就能听到很多,包括他们一家在每集节目结尾时的晚餐桌前都会念诵的无宗派祈祷文,以及整个节目不乱诅咒、不亵渎神明的语气。 But there are more things Phil would like to say—"controversial" things, as he puts it to me—that don't make the cut. (This March, for instance, he told the Christian-oriented Sports Spectrum magazine that he didn't approve of A&E editing out "in Jesus" from a family prayer scene, even though A&E says that the phrase has been uttered in at least seventeen episodes.) 但Phil想要表达的东西更多,用他自己的话说,那都是些“有争议的”事情,而这些就不太符合要求了。(比如,今年三月,Phil就跟具有基督教倾向的《运动光谱》杂志说他并不赞成A&E台将“奉耶稣”一语从家庭祷告镜头中剪辑掉的做法,尽管A&E台宣称这一词汇已经在至少17集节目中被他们提到过。) Out here in these woods, without any cameras around, Phil is free to say what he wants. Maybe a little too free. He's got lots of thoughts on modern immorality, and there's no stopping them from rushing out. Like this one: 在这种丛林之中,周围没有摄像机,Phil拥有了想说啥就说啥的自由。可能还有点过分自由了。他对于现代的道德败坏想法甚多,根本无法阻止它们脱口而出。比如: "It seems like, to me, a vagina—as a man—would be more desirable than a man's anus. That's just me. I'm just thinking: There's more there! She's got more to offer. I mean, come on, dudes! You know what I'm saying? But hey, sin: It's not logical, my man. It's just not logical." “在我看来,作为一个男人,阴道似乎要比男人的后门更可爱。我就是这样。我的想法就是:那可要好多了!她能给我提供更多东西。我的意思是,别这样,男人们!你明白我在说什么吧?但世上就是会有罪恶。这没道理,兄弟。这就是没道理。” Perhaps we'll be needing that seat belt after all. 我想我们终究还是需要把安全带系好。

……

The Duck Dynasty origin story is the mighty river from which all other Robertson-family stories flow. And it is an awesome story, one that improves the more it is told, so here is my stab at it: 《鸭子王朝》的起源故事是一条滔滔大河,Robertson家族此后所有的故事都发源于此。这是一个精彩的故事,而且每讲一次就会愈加完美一次,所以让我来试着叙述一下: Phil Robertson grew up bone poor in the northwest corner of this state—a place where Cajun redneck culture and Ozark redneck culture intersect—to a manic-depressive mother and a roughneck father. Phil Robertson成长于该州西北角一个极度贫困的家庭,当地乃是卡真人红脖文化【译注:卡真人是路易斯安那州的法国后裔。】与欧扎卡红脖文化【译注:欧扎卡山区位于密苏里南部与阿肯色和俄克拉荷马交界处。】的交汇之处。他的母亲患有狂躁抑郁症,父亲则是一个大老粗。 He was a star quarterback in high school and earned a scholarship to play at Louisiana Tech, but quit after one season because football interfered with duck-hunting season. The guy who took his roster spot at Tech was Terry Bradshaw, because that's how these kinds of stories go. 高中时代,他是个明星四分卫,后来获得奖学金在路易斯安那理工大学校队打球。但一个赛季以后他就退学了,因为橄榄球赛季和猎鸭季节相互冲突。在理工大学校队球员名册上顶替他位置的是Terry Bradshaw【译注:著名四分卫】,因为所有这类故事都有这种情节走向。 Phil On Growing Up in Pre-Civil-Rights-Era Louisiana Phil谈民权时代以前的路易斯安那成长经历 "I never, with my eyes, saw the mistreatment of any black person. Not once. Where we lived was all farmers. The blacks worked for the farmers. I hoed cotton with them. I'm with the blacks, because we're white trash. We're going across the field.... They're singing and happy. “我从未亲眼看过对任何黑人的虐待。一次都没有。我们住的地方全是农民。黑人们都为农民工作。我跟他们一起锄棉花。我跟黑人是一边的,因为我们都是穷苦白人。我们横穿田野……他们兴高采烈地歌唱。 "I never heard one of them, one black person, say, I tell you what: These doggone white people—not a word!... Pre-entitlement, pre-welfare, you say: Were they happy? They were godly; they were happy; no one was singing the blues." “我从未听他们,从未听任何一个黑人说过,嘿,我跟你说,这些他妈的白人——我从未听过此类说辞……这是在补贴以前,在福利制度以前。你要问:他们开心吗?他们是虔诚的、开心的;根本没人丧气埋怨。” According to Phil's autobiography—a ghostwritten book he says he has never read—he spent his days after Tech doing odd jobs and his evenings getting drunk, chasing tail, and swallowing diet pills and black mollies, a form of medicinal speed. In his midtwenties, already married with three sons, a piss-drunk Robertson kicked his family out of the house. 根据Phil的自传——该书由影子写手完成,Phil称自己从未读过——他从理工大学退学后,白天做零工,晚上则喝个大醉、拈花惹草、吞服减肥药和“黑玛丽鱼”(一种药物兴奋剂)。20多岁时,他已经结婚,并生有3个孩子,某次酩酊大醉后将家人全部赶出了自己的房子。 "I'm sick of you," he told his wife, Kay. But Robertson soon realized the error of his ways, begged Kay to come back, and turned over his life to Jesus Christ. “我看见你就烦”,他这么跟他老婆Kay说。但Robertson很快就意识到这种生活方式的错误,求Kay回家,并将自己的生命托付给了耶稣基督。 In 1972, with Jesus at the wheel, Robertson founded the Duck Commander company, which sold a line of custom-made duck-hunting calls that quickly became popular among avid hunters for their uncanny accuracy in replicating the sound of a real duck. 1972年,在耶稣的指引下,Robertson创办了“鸭司令”公司,出售一种定制的猎鸭哨子。这种哨子很快就在贪婪的猎人中流行开来,因为它能出奇精准地再现真鸭子的声音。最终,他将公司的一半卖给了自己现年41岁的儿子Willie。 He eventually sold half the company to his son Willie, now 41, and together they made a DVD series about the family's duck hunts, which led to a show on the Outdoor Channel, which led to Duck Dynasty on A&E, which led to everything blowing right the fuck up. 他们还一起录制了一个DVD系列,内容是全家的猎鸭活动,此举促使他们后来在“户外频道”上过一期节目,又催生了A&E台的《鸭子王朝》,而后者则促成了此后所有名声大噪的一切。 The show—a reality sitcom showcasing the semiscripted high jinks of Phil, his brother "Uncle Si," his four sons, Alan, Willie, Jase, and Jep, and the perpetually exasperated but always perfectly accessorized Robertson-family ladies—has become the biggest reality-TV hit in the history of cable television, reportedly earning the family a holy shit worthy $200,000-an-episode paycheck. 《鸭子王朝》是个真人秀情景剧,剧中展现的是Phil,他的兄弟“Uncle Si”和他4个儿子Alan、Willie、Jase和Jep之间半编排半自发的嬉笑怒骂,以及永远怒气冲冲但又总是穿戴整齐完美的Robertson家族的女士们。该剧已经成为有线电视史上最为成功的真人秀热播节目。据报道,这一家子收获了每集20万美元的天价报酬。 It's a funny, family-friendly show, with "skits that we come up with," as Phil describes the writing process. They plunder beehives. They blow up beaver dams. And when the Robertson-family ladies go up to a rooftop in a hydraulic lift, you just know that lift will "accidentally" get stuck and strand them. 这个节目既逗乐又适合家庭观看,据Phil介绍其写作过程,其中“有些搞笑是我们想出来的”。他们偷蜂巢。他们炸河狸坝。如果Robertson家族的女士们想要通过液压升降机爬到屋顶上去,你就知道升降机肯定会“突然”卡住,把她们困在里面。 But the show, whose fifth season premieres on January 15, is just one part of the family's pop-cultural dominance. In 2013 four books written (kind of!) by Robertson family members made the top ten on the New York Times nonfiction best-seller list. 该剧第5季将在1月15日首播,但它还只是Robertson家族在流行文化界统治地位的一个侧面。2013年,Robertson家族成员写作(请自行加上引号!)的4本书进入了《纽约时报》畅销书非虚构类前十榜单。 Another book—penned by Jase Robertson and detailing his Christian rebirth at age 14, his struggle to forgive his father's past behavior, and his young daughter's struggle through five facial-reconstruction surgeries to overcome a severe cleft lip and palate—is forthcoming and destined to make it five best-sellers. 还有一本马上要出的书——由Jase Robertson写作,详述他本人14岁时经历的基督教新生、他如何努力原谅其父过去的所作所为、他的小女儿为了治疗严重的唇腭裂如何挣扎着经历5次面部修复手术——也注定要成为第5本畅销书。 There's also a book of devotionals somewhere in there, along with Duck Dynasty themed birthday cards, bobblehead dolls, camo apparel (pink camo for the ladies), Cajun-spice seasoning, car fresheners, iPhone games (from the press release: "As players successfully complete the challenges, their beards grow to epic proportions and they start to transform from a yuppie into a full-blown redneck!"), and presumably some sort of camouflage home-pregnancy test. 这家人的作品清单里还有一本关于宗教仪式的书,此外还有《鸭子王朝》主题生日卡片、大头塑像、迷彩服(女士还有粉红迷彩)、卡真香料调味品、车用空气清新剂、iPhone游戏(游戏的新闻稿称,“如果玩家成功完成挑战,他们的胡子就会长到极为浓密,于是他们就会开始从雅皮转变为一个货真价实的红脖!”),可能还有某种具有伪装性的居家验孕办法。 It's easy to see the appeal. The Robertsons are immensely likable. They're funny. They look cool. They're "smarter than they look," says sportswriter Mark Schlabach, who co-writes the family's books. 他们的吸引力显而易见。Robertson一家子极为可爱。他们很搞笑。他们看起来很酷。他们“比看上去要聪明得多”,体育作家Mark Schlabach说道,他参与了写作该家族的书籍。 And they are remarkably honest both with one another and with the viewing audience: Phil's old hell-raising, Si's traumatic stint in Vietnam, the intervention that the family staged for Jep when he was boozing and doing drugs in college (Phil placed him under house arrest for three months)—all of it is out in the open. The more they reveal, the more people feel connected to them. 而且,他们对于彼此以及对于收看节目的观众也极为诚实。Phil曾经的捣蛋胡闹、Si在越南的痛苦岁月、Jep大学期间嗜酒嗜毒时全家为他而安排的干预矫治(Phil把他软禁在家中长达3个月)等等,所有这些都公之于众。他们展示给人的越多,人们就越是觉得自己与他们有共鸣。 And then, of course, there is their faith, which plays no small role here. During the family's initial negotiations about the show with A&E, Jase told me, "the three no-compromises were faith, betrayal of family members, and duck season." 当然,此外还有就是他们的信仰,这也发挥了不小的作用。Jase告诉我,在家族与A&E台最初就节目进行交涉时,“我们绝不让步的有三样,那就是信仰、背叛家族成员和猎鸭季节。” That refusal to betray their faith or one another has been a staple of every media article about the Robertson family. It's their elevator pitch, and it has made them into ideal Christian icons: beloved for staking out a bit of holy ground within the mostly secular, often downright sinful, pop culture of America. 拒绝背叛信仰、拒绝背叛彼此,已经成为了所有关于Robertson家族的媒体文章的共同主题。这就是他们的“电梯演讲”【译注:指推销自己的简短自我介绍】,使他们成为了完美的基督徒典范:因为在通常都很世俗、经常纯属邪恶的美国流行文化界圈出了一小块圣洁土壤而受到人们钟爱。

……

Phil Robertson's house is located in the sticks about twenty miles outside the city of Monroe (pronounce it mun-roe). It's a rather small house—the kind of place its owner would proudly call "humble." The kitchen table is covered with big plastic tubs of cinnamon rolls and mini muffins. There are candy dishes filled to the brim, bricks of softening butter, and packages of jerky made from unknown animals, sent by unnamed fans. (I tried some, and it was awesome.) Phil Robertson的家安在距门罗市大约20英里的边远地区。房子相对较小——主人很可以骄傲地称这种住所为“寒舍”。厨房餐桌上摆满了大塑料盆装的肉桂饼和迷你松糕。还有满到冒尖的糖果盘子、快要融化的黄油块以及一包包由不知名粉丝送来的不知何种动物的肉干(我试吃了一些,味道棒极了)。 Just inside the front door, a giant flat-screen TV shows Fox News on mute at all times, and a bunch of big squishy sofas are arranged in a rectangle around it. 一进前门,就可以看到一个巨大的平面屏幕电视机,不间断地静音播放Fox News。好几个松垮垮的沙发就呈矩形摆放在电视机周围。 Si Robertson is sitting on the couch facing the TV. Jep Robertson, age 35, the youngest son, curls up in a recliner in the corner with a pistol strapped to his waist. He barely speaks, like a countrified Silent Bob. Si Robertson坐在正对电视机的沙发上。35岁的Jep Robertson是最小的儿子,蜷缩在角落里的一条躺椅上,腰上别支手枪。他很少说话,就像是个乡村版的“沉默的鲍勃”【译注:美国制片人Kevin Smith创造的虚拟人物,沉默寡言】。 Jase, 44, and Willie share a love seat while Phil lounges barefoot on a camo-patterned recliner in the far corner of the room. Two dogs share the recliner's footrest with Phil's heavily callused bare feet. He has severe bunions, so his big toes jut in at forty-five-degree angles. 44岁的Jase和Willie一起坐在一张双人沙发上,而Phil则赤脚躺在房间最远处角落里的一张涂着迷彩图案的躺椅上。两只狗跟Phil那长满老茧的赤脚一同靠着脚垫。他患有严重的拇囊炎,所以大脚趾根呈45度角突出【编注:据某些医生认为,拇囊炎和长期穿不合脚的鞋有关,比如特别窄的尖头皮靴。】。 The main TV room is cluttered with mismatched furniture and photos hung haphazardly on the walls. And Phil looks like part of the clutter himself, as if he'd been wedged into that recliner a while back by some absentminded homeowner who didn't know where else to put him. 放电视机的主客厅里胡乱摆放着互不搭配的家具,墙上随意挂着些照片。Phil本人看起来似乎就是杂物之一,就好像是之前某个心不在焉的房主不知道要把他摆哪里,所以就塞进了那个躺椅中。 When I walk into the TV area, no one makes a move to get up—the Robertson men greet you as they would a friend who just came back from a beer run. Not only are the Robertsons among the most famous people in the country, they also happen to be among the most recognizable. 我走进电视房时,没人做出什么要起来的动作。Robertson家的男人欢迎你的方式,就像他们对待一个刚买啤酒回来的朋友一样。Robertson一家不但是全县最出名的人物之一,他们也是最好认的人之一。凭着那些大胡子,你在一英里以外都能认出他们。 You can spot them from a mile away with those beards. Imagine Johnny Depp walking around every day in his Jack Sparrow costume and you begin to get an idea of how much they stand out. It's gotten to the point that they say they can't fly commercial anymore. 想象一下约翰·尼德普天天顶着杰克船长的那套装扮四处晃悠,你就能大体理解他们有多么突兀显眼。这事已经发展到了他们说他们再也不能乘坐普通民航的程度。 "You been hunting yet this year?" Phil asks me, by way of introduction. “今年你打过猎?”Phil这么问我,算是引见。 I have not. In fact, I confess to Phil, I've never been hunting before. But I have fired a gun! NOT A TOTAL LIGHTWEIGHT, GANG! 没有。事实上,我跟Phil坦白说,我还从未打过猎。但是开过枪!绝不是完全的废材,酷! "Si went this morning and killed three squirrels," says Phil. "They're delicious. One of the best meats there is in the woods, I'll tell you that. Very clean animal." He nods toward Uncle Si, who, with his mangy ponytail, looks very much like the squirrels he hunts. “Si今天早上去了,杀了三只松鼠”,Phil说。“太美味了。我跟你说,这可是丛林中最美的肉食之一。非常干净的动物。”他朝Uncle Si点点头,后者顶着一条脏兮兮的马尾辫,看起来倒是蛮像他猎杀的松鼠。 Phil On Why He Voted Romney in 2012 Phil谈他2012年为什么给罗姆尼投票 "If I'm lost at three o'clock in a major metropolitan area...I ask myself: Where would I rather be trying to walk with my wife and children? One of the guys who's running for president is out of Chicago, Illinois, and the other one is from Salt Lake City, Utah. [Editor's note: Romney is from Boston, not Salt Lake City.] Where would I rather be turned around at three o'clock in the morning? I opted for Salt Lake City. I think it would be safer." “如果我早上三点在一个大都市区迷路了……我会问我自己:我更想带着我的妻子和孩子朝哪个方向走?竞选总统的人中有一个来自伊利诺斯的芝加哥,另一个来自犹他的盐湖城[原文编辑注:罗姆尼来自波士顿,而不是盐湖城]【译注:罗姆尼虽不是来自盐湖城,但确实是摩门教徒。】。凌晨3点钟,我应该朝哪个方向走?我选择盐湖城。我觉得这样安全些。” Even though he's in the far corner of the room, Phil dominates the house. There are times when he doesn't look you in the eye while he's speaking—he looks just off to the side of you, as if Jesus were standing nearby, holding a stack of cue cards. Everyone else in the room just stares at his phone, or at the TV, or holds side conversations as Phil preaches. 尽管他只是远远地坐在房间的角落里,但Phil仍俯视着整个屋子。有时候,他在跟你说话时并不会和你对视,他的视线会朝向你的左右两边,就好像耶稣正手拿一堆提示卡站在旁边一样。Phil布道时,屋子里的其他人要么就盯着自己的手机,要么就盯着电视机,要么就继续和其他人单独说话。 "We're Bible-thumpers who just happened to end up on television," he tells me. "You put in your article that the Robertson family really believes strongly that if the human race loved each other and they loved God, we would just be better off. We ought to just be repentant, turn to God, and let's get on with it, and everything will turn around." “我们都是些圣经狂人,只是碰巧跑到电视上去了而已”,他跟我说。“你写的文章要说一说,Robertson一家人确实非常相信,如果人类能够爱彼此同时爱上帝,我们就会过得更加好。我们就是应该悔改、应该皈依上帝。只要我们努力如此,一切都会好转。” What does repentance entail? Well, in Robertson's worldview, America was a country founded upon Christian values (Thou shalt not kill, etc.), and he believes that the gradual removal of Christian symbolism from public spaces has diluted those founding principles. (He and Si take turns going on about why the Ten Commandments ought to be displayed outside courthouses.) He sees the popularity of Duck Dynasty as a small corrective to all that we have lost. 悔改意味着什么?关于这事,在Robertson的世界观里,美国的建国基础是基督教价值观(“不可杀人”等等)。而且他认为,将基督教符号从公共空间中逐步清除的做法已经冲淡了这些建国原则。(他和Si轮流喋喋不休地谈论为什么应该将十诫摆在法院外边。)他将《鸭子王朝》的风靡视作对我们所丢弃之物的一点点矫正。 "Everything is blurred on what's right and what's wrong," he says. "Sin becomes fine." “何为是?何为非?一切都模糊了”,他说。“罪恶通行无阻。” What, in your mind, is sinful? 在你心目中,什么是有罪? "Start with homosexual behavior and just morph out from there. Bestiality, sleeping around with this woman and that woman and that woman and those men," he says. Then he paraphrases Corinthians: "Don't be deceived. Neither the adulterers, the idolaters, the male prostitutes, the homosexual offenders, the greedy, the drunkards, the slanderers, the swindlers—they won't inherit the kingdom of God. Don't deceive yourself. It's not right." 他说,“首先是同性恋,然后就从那开始分化。兽交,跟这个女的那个女的厮混,然后又跟那个女的这群男的厮混。”然后他改述《哥林多前书》:“不要自欺。无论是奸淫的、拜偶像的、做男妓的、行同性恋的冒犯者、贪婪的、醉酒的、造谣的、行骗的,他们都不能承受神的国。不要自欺。这是不对的。” During Phil's darkest days, in the early 1970s, he had to flee the state of Arkansas after he badly beat up a bar owner and the guy's wife. Kay Robertson persuaded the bar owner not to press charges in exchange for most of the Robertsons' life savings. ("A hefty price," he notes in his memoir.) I ask Phil if he ever repented for that, as he wants America to repent—if he ever tracked down the bar owner and his wife to apologize for the assault. He shakes his head. 在他过往的黑暗日子里,1970年代早期,Phil曾将一个酒吧店主及其妻子打成重伤,自己不得不逃离阿肯色。Kay Robertson说服酒吧店主不起诉,代价是付出了Robertson一辈子攒下的大部分积蓄。(“沉重的代价”,他在自传中说。)我问他,如果他要美国悔改,那他是否曾为此悔改过,是否曾追寻那个店主及其妻子的下落并为其袭击行为致歉。他摇了摇头。 "I didn't dredge anything back up. I just put it behind me." “我不会在任何旧事上徘徊。我会径直将它们丢在脑后。” As far as Phil is concerned, he was literally born again. Old Phil—the guy with the booze and the pills—died a long time ago, and New Phil sees no need to apologize for him: 在Phil看来,他已经真真切切地重生了一次。旧的Phil,那个饮酒嗑药的Phil,很久以前就已死去,新的Phil不觉得有必要帮他道歉。 "We never, ever judge someone on who's going to heaven, hell. That's the Almighty's job. We just love 'em, give 'em the good news about Jesus—whether they're homosexuals, drunks, terrorists. We let God sort 'em out later, you see what I'm saying?" “谁会上天堂,谁会下地狱,在这个问题上我们从不、绝不对人加以评判。这是上帝的事务。我们只需爱他们,向他们传递关于耶稣的好消息,不管他们是同性恋、酒鬼还是恐怖分子。我们让上帝以后来挑选他们,你知道我什么意思吗?” Okay, so perhaps it's not exactly shocking that a deeply religious 67-year-old hunter from rural Louisiana would have, shall we say, enthusiastic ideas about what constitutes good Christian morality. That's the unspoken red-state appeal of Duck Dynasty. They're godly folk. "Real" folk. 好吧。所以,一个信仰极为真诚的67岁路易斯安那乡下猎人会对什么是好的基督教伦理这一问题抱有(也许可以说)极为狂热的想法,这也许并不是特别令人震惊。这是《鸭子王朝》对于红州不言而喻的感染力。他们是一帮虔诚的老百姓。“真正的”老百姓。 It helps explain why people flock to Monroe in droves to visit the Duck Commander store (which, shockingly, does not sell firearms). It's why Willie Robertson can walk out of work on a regular Thursday afternoon and be greeted by a cheering crowd that seemingly stretches back to the horizon. He shows me a video of the crowd on his phone. 它可以解释,为什么人们会成群结队地涌入门罗市,只为参观“鸭司令”的门店(令人惊讶的是,店里并不出售武器)。这也是为何当Willie Robertson在某个平常的周四下午歇工后会受到一大群人欢呼致意,拥挤的人群似乎要延伸到天边去。他用手机向我展示了人群的视频。 "This was one day just in the summer," he says. "I was just going in my car to go home. " “这就只是夏日的一天”,他说。“我只是朝我的车子走去,准备回家。” Does it ever wear you down? 这是否会让你疲倦? "Oh yeah." “嗯。” Willie has just come back from Washington, D.C., where he accepted an award at the Angels in Adoption Gala. (He and his wife, Korie, adopted a biracial child named Will and are dedicated advocates of the practice.) As we speak, there's a film crew outside the house, prepping for a State Farm ad that the family will be shooting here on the property tomorrow. Willie刚从华盛顿回来,他去“收养天使庆典”上领了一个奖。(Willie和妻子Korie领养了一个混血儿,叫做Will,两人都是领养行为的热情拥护者。)我们交谈的时候,屋子外头还有一个制片组,正在为全家人明天将在这片宅子上拍摄的一个“州立农业保险公司”广告做准备。 The Robertsons receive more than 500 media requests a day, and Willie had to negotiate down to four shooting days a week with A&E just so the family would have a bit of breathing room. Phil knows it won't last. He can already see that the end is near, and he's prepared for it. 每天,Robertson一家都会收到500多份媒体请求,Willie则需要和A&E台商量,将拍摄日减少到每周4天,以便全家能稍微有一些喘息空间。Phil知道事情不会一直如此。他已经预见到,快要到头了,而且正在为之做准备。 "Let's face it," he says. "Three, four, five years, we're out of here. You know what I'm saying? It's a TV show. This thing ain't gonna last forever. No way." “承认吧”,他说。“三年、四年、五年,我们肯定会停的。你知道我什么意思不?这只是个电视节目。这种东西不会永远持续。绝不可能。” When the show runs its course and the production trucks drive off the Robertson property for good, there will be nothing keeping Phil from his greater mission. He could step back if he felt like it, given that he's now a very wealthy man. He could stay in these woods and live out the rest of his days hunting. But he has a flock now. He and the other Robertson men happily tour the country, giving speeches and hosting Bible studies. 如果节目寿终正寝,摄制组的大卡车彻底离Robertson一家人的领地而去,那时候将没有任何事物能够阻止Phil去履行他那更伟大的使命。如果他愿意,他可以退隐,因为他现在已经非常富有。他可以呆在这些林子里,余生全用来打猎。但是他现在有了一批教徒。他和Robertson家的其他男人一起,愉快地在全国巡回,发表演讲,主持圣经研究。 I ask Jep Robertson later on if the second generation of Robertson men shares Phil's views on sin and morality. "We're not quite as outspoken as my dad, but I'm definitely in line," he says. "If somebody asks, I tell 'em what the Bible says." 我后来曾问过Jep Robertson,在罪行和道德问题上,Robertson家的第二代男人是否跟Phil持有一样的观点。“我们并不像爸爸那样坦率直言,但我绝对是跟随着他的”,他说。“如果有人问我什么事,我会告诉他圣经怎么说。” When Uncle Si went to Conway, Arkansas, recently for a paid appearance, 20,000 people showed up. It led the local news that night in Little Rock. The show is merely the platform. The end goal is to save souls. And the Robertson family is more than happy to sacrifice a little privacy out here in the woods—visitors regularly congregate outside Phil's security gate hoping for a glance at the family— to spread the good word. Uncle Si最近参加阿肯色州康威市的一次商业登台时,有20000人出席。该活动在小石城当晚的地方新闻中大放异彩。演出只是一个平台。最终目的是拯救灵魂。而且,为了传播上帝的好消息,Robertson一家非常乐意在这片林子里牺牲一点隐私——参观者经常会聚集在Phil的防盗闸前面,盼望着能窥探一下这个家庭。 "For the sake of the Gospel, it was worth it," Phil tells me. "All you have to do is look at any society where there is no Jesus. I'll give you four: Nazis, no Jesus. Look at their record. Uh, Shintos? They started this thing in Pearl Harbor. Any Jesus among them? None. Communists? None. Islamists? Zero. That's eighty years of ideologies that have popped up where no Jesus was allowed among those four groups. Just look at the records as far as murder goes among those four groups." “为了福音,这么做是值得的”,Phil跟我说。“你只需要看看那些没有耶稣的社会。我给你举4个。纳粹,没有耶稣。看看他们的历史。呃,神道教?他们搞出了珍珠港这档子事。他们有耶稣吗?没有。共产主义者?没有。伊斯兰主义者?零。这4个群体中有80年不允许耶稣出现,结果就冒出了这么些意识形态。只需要看看这4个群体中谋杀蔓延的记录。” Phil On Health Insurance Phil谈医疗保险 "Temporary is all you're going to get with any kind of health care, except the health care I'm telling you about. That's eternal health care, and it's free.... I've opted to go with eternal health care instead of blowing money on these insurance schemes." “你从任何医疗保健上面得到的,都只能是暂时的。除非你采用我跟你说的这种医疗保健,那就是永恒医疗保健,而且它是免费的……我选择采用永恒医疗保健,不会把钱浪费在那些保险计划上头。” For what it's worth—and since I actually looked it up—the violent-crime rate here in America has plummeted since 1990, even as church attendance has stayed the same. And, of course, Phil is conveniently ignoring centuries upon centuries of war, bloodshed, and human enslavement committed in the name of Christ. 或可加以参考的是——我确实查证过——美国的暴力犯罪率自1990年以来已经大幅下降了,尽管去教堂的人数并没有什么变化。而且,Phil显然随手就把历史上数个世纪里以基督的名义犯下的种种战争、杀戮和奴役他人等行为给忽略了。 But I doubt any of that would sway Phil. And anyway, I'm a guest in his house and he is my welcoming host, so I smile politely and nod like the milquetoast suburban WASP that I am. 但是,我怀疑所有这些都不会动摇Phil。而且,不管怎样,我是到他家作客的,他又是个好客的主人,所以我一直礼貌地笑着,恰如其分地像个城郊盎格鲁萨克逊白人新教徒那样温驯地点头。 If you can't reconcile some of the things Phil says with his otherwise friendly demeanor—perhaps because you are gay, or a duck—I don't blame you. And I don't blame Duck Dynasty for keeping the show safely apolitical, ensuring smooth digestion for a mass audience. 如果你没法很好地调和Phil的部分言论与他的另外一些友好举止——也许因为你是同性恋,或者你是只鸭子——我并不会怪你。我也不怪《鸭子王朝》一剧刻意小心地保持其非政治性质的做法,这是为了确保大众受众能够毫无阻碍地接受它。 While Phil proselytizes, I lean over to Willie, who is playing a video game on his phone. 在Phil推销其宗教信仰的时候,我侧身探向Willie,他正在手机上玩电子游戏。 Boy, it's hard to get a word in with him! 哎呀,要在他面前插进一句话可真难啊! Willie nods knowingly, barely looking up. I get the sense he's heard all this before, many, many times. It's taken me a while to figure out that you can cut Phil off and it's not rude. He's like a sidewalk preacher. One look from a stranger is all he needs to delve into the story bank and dole out his sermon. You can stop and listen for a bit, and then move on if you like. So even though he's rolling, I change the subject. Willie会意地点点头,基本没看我。于是我就知道,他之前肯定已经听过这些话了,而且是很多很多次。我费了好一会儿才明白,你可以直接打断Phil的话,他不会觉得你粗鲁。他就像是那些呆在路边的布道者。只要有陌生人看他一眼,就足够让他深入到他自己的故事库里,开始他的讲道。你可以驻足一会,稍微听听,然后想走就走。所以尽管他还在滔滔不绝,我却换了一个话题。 You know what, Phil? Maybe we should just go shoot some stuff. Can we do that? 你知道吗,Phil?也许我们应该直接跑去射点东西。行不? "Oh yeah. You betcha we can." “当然行。这还用问吗?”

……

The Robertson family spread is a 20,000-acre stretch of Louisiana floodplain. At first glance, it looks like an untouched expanse of rural wilderness. It is not. Phil stops the ATV in the middle of the trail, which runs atop a levee that he built himself, to show me a vast field of pink wild flowers. He crumbles one of the wild flowers and shows me the black seeds inside. Robertson家族散居在路易斯安那20000英亩的大片洪泛平原上。乍一看,此地就像是一个未经开发的辽阔荒野。但它不是。Phil半路中停住了他的全地形车,我们行驶的小径就修在他自己建的一条堤坝上。Phil带我去看一大片的粉红色银莲花。他捏碎其中一个,让我看里面的黑色种子。 "See them little black seeds? See that? That's what ducks eat. They love that. It's called Pennsylvania smartweed. So we basically grow either natural vegetation or plants, or augment it, and we flood it." In other words, the Robertsons are a legit farm-to-table family. Real pre-hipster shit. “看到那些小小的黑色种子没有?看到不?鸭子就吃那个。它们很喜欢。这叫做宾夕法尼亚荨麻。所以我们基本上要么就是种天然的植被,要么就是种作物,或者帮助其增长,然后就把它们放水淹起来。”换句话说,Robertson一家可是正统的从农场到餐桌的家庭。真正是颓废派出现之前的做派。 When the waters from the nearby Ouachita River flood, it creates an ideal place to feed ducks. Which means it's also the ideal place to kill ducks, who fly all the way from the Canadian prairies just to find themselves at the wrong end of Phil's shotgun. 当附近的沃希托河洪水泛滥时,这里就成了一个饲养鸭子的理想场所。这也意味着,它同样是猎杀鸭子的理想场所。鸭子们从加拿大的大草原上一路飞过来,却发现自己错误地撞到了Phil的枪口。 "Whack 'em and stack 'em," as he says. And if the river doesn't flood during the sixty-day duck season between November and January, Robertson has a pipeline installed to flood the lowlands anyway so that they don't lose a day of hunting. “啪一下、堆起来”,他是这么说的。如果在11月至1月之间的60天猎鸭季节之内,河里没有涨水,那么Robertson就会装上一根管子,总之要把低洼地带淹没起来,这样他们就不会浪费一天打猎机会。 The ecology here has been so perfectly manipulated that it feels as if two giant hands reached down from the sky and molded the land itself, an effect that I'm sure would please Phil. Whatever you think of Phil's beliefs, it's hard not to gaze upon his cultivations and wonder if you've gotten life all wrong. 这里的生态营造得如此完美,以至于你会觉得好像是有两只巨手从天而降亲自塑造了这片大地。我想这肯定让Phil特别愉悦。无论你怎么看待Phil的信仰, 当你看着他种植的东西时,你几乎总会纳闷自己的生活是不是都错了。 This is life as summer camp. It's gorgeous, in a way that alters you on an elemental level. I feel it when I breathe the air. I feel it when I survey the enormity of the space around me. I shouldn't be sitting around the house and bitching because the new iOS 7 touchscreen icons don't have any fucking drop shadow. I should be out here, dammit! Killing things and growing things and bringing dead things home to cook! There is a life out in this wilderness that I am too chickenshit to lead. 这是一种夏令营似的生活。它无比动人,会从最根本的层面上改变你。我呼吸的时候,有这种体会。我纵览周边的无垠空间时,有这种体会。我不应该在屋子里呆着,为那见鬼的新版iOS 7触屏图标没有阴影效果而满腹牢骚。我应该跑到这儿来,该死的!杀点东西、种点东西,然后带点打死的东西回家煮!这片荒野中有一种生活方式,而我胆小懦弱、无力体验。 As we speed along, a speck of mud gets on my shirt—OMG MUD EWW SO GROSS!—and I flick it away. Meanwhile, Phil sits next to me, and his whole life is caked in mud. He's been out here plunging his hands into the earth and ripping the heads off ducks while I've been in suburbia with my thumb up my ass. I feel both inadequate and ungrateful. There's only one way to absolve myself, I figure, and that is to shoot the fuck out of this crossbow. 疾驰而过的时候,一小块泥巴溅到了我的衬衫上——天啦!泥巴!呃,太恶心啦!——我把它给弹走了。这时,Phil就坐在我旁边,他的整个人生就凝结在泥巴里。当我在郊区呆着没事抠屁眼的时候,他却一直呆在这片荒野中,双手扒进泥土里,撕扯鸭子们的脑袋。我既感到自己人生不够完整,又感到自己不知感恩。我想,只有一种办法能赦免我自己,那就是拿着这只手弩射他妈的几发。 Can I shoot the crossbow? And the rifle, for that matter? 我能不能射射这只手弩?还有那条步枪? "It's ready to go," he says. "Let's see what you can shoot at." “已经弄好了”,他说。“看看你能射到什么。” Since it isn't duck season yet, and since there are no deer around, Phil tosses out a bottle of water from the ATV for me to target. I grab the .22 first, step out of the vehicle, and nail it dead on. first shot. I AM THE HUNTER. 因为现在还没到猎鸭季节,而且周围也没有野鹿,所以Phil从车上往外边扔出一瓶水,让我去瞄准。我先拿起那条点22步枪,爬出车子,十分精准地击中了它。第一枪。我是个猎人! Time for the crossbow. Phil steps in front of the ATV to move the bottle so that I have a clear shot. I jokingly pantomime grabbing at the crossbow to shoot him. 接着是手弩。Phil跑到车子前面去挪动那只瓶子,以便让我能看得更清。我开玩笑地打手势,假装拿着弩要去射他。 Just stay there, Phil! That's perfect! 就呆在那儿,Phil!很好! He laughs and pats his pant leg: "That's why I keep an extra sidearm here." 他笑了,拍拍自己的裤腿。“这就是为啥我要额外在这里再放一支小手枪。” Phil hands me the bow, and I try to get a bead on the bottle through the scope. I close my eyes just as I'm squeezing the trigger. I hear the rush of the arrow and open my eyes in time to see the bottle jump up and start bleeding water down into the swamplands. The arrow is stuck a foot deep in the muck. I feel so very alive. Phil把弩交给我,我试着用瞄准器的准星去对那只瓶子。扣下扳机时,我闭上了眼睛。我听到箭支射出去的声音,睁开眼睛,就看到瓶子飞了起来,正往底下的沼泽地里漏水。箭支没地足有一英尺。我感到活力十足。 Phil nods in approval. "What do they call you where you're from? Deadeye? Let me guess: You were a mischievous boy when you were younger." I was indeed. Perhaps I should have stayed that way. Phil赞赏地点点头。“在你们那边,人们管你叫啥?我猜,是‘神射手’?你小的时候肯定是个淘气的孩子。”我确实是。也许我应该一直保持那样。 "So you and your woman: Are y'all Bible people?" “那么,你和你的女人,信圣经的吗?” Not really, I'm sorry to say. 恐怕不是,很遗憾地说。 "If you simply put your faith in Jesus coming down in flesh, through a human being, God becoming flesh living on the earth, dying on the cross for the sins of the world, being buried, and being raised from the dead—yours and mine and everybody else's problems will be solved. And the next time we see you, we will say: ‘You are now a brother. Our brother.' So then we look at you totally different then. See what I'm saying?" “只要你能相信耶稣通过一个人的形式以肉身降临,相信上帝变成肉身,生活在地球上,为着世上的罪恶而死在了十字架上,被埋进土里又死而复生。那么你的问题、我的问题、所有其他人的问题就都解决了。下次我们再看到你,我们就会说:‘你现在是兄弟。我们的兄弟’。那时候我们看待你就会完全不同了。知道我什么意思不?” I think so? 大概知道? We hop back in the ATV and plow toward the sunset, back to the Robertson home. There will be no family dinner tonight. No cameras in the house. No rowdy squirrel-hunting stories from back in the day. There will be only the realest version of Phil Robertson, hosting a private Bible study with a woman who, according to him, "has been on cocaine for years and is making her decision to repent. I'm going to point her in the right direction." 我们跳回车上,车子朝着夕阳颠簸,往Robertson家开回去。今晚不会有家庭晚餐。家里不会有摄像机。不会有人叽叽喳喳地讲述白天猎松鼠的故事。只会有最真实版本的Phil Robertson,他将举办一个私人的圣经学习会。另外一位参与者是个妇女,据Robertson说,“她多年来一直吸食可卡因,正决定悔改。我会为她指明正确的方向。” It's the direction he would like to point everyone: back to the woods. Back to the pioneer spirit. Back to God. "Why don't we go back to the old days?" he asked me at one point. But now, I'm afraid, I must get out of the ATV and go back to where I belong, back to the godless part of America that Phil is determined to save. 这方向是他愿意为任何人指明的:回归丛林;回归拓荒者的精神;回归上帝。“为什么不能回到老时光呢?”他曾这样问我。但是,我想我现在必须离开他的全地形车,回到属于我的地方、回到Phil下定决心要去拯救的那个不虔诚的美国去了。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

文化气味

【2016-07-23】

@linsantu 发表了博文《科学家和哲学家的宗教信仰》(6月24日改自去年知乎回答,7月10日发表于腾讯大家)一我们生活在一个科学主义的时代,科学家(尤其是自然科学家)常常被视为理性与真理的化身。因此一般人在讨论“神 http://t.cn/R5gmmgp

@Drunkplane-zny: @whigzhou 辉总也许会对这文章感兴趣。我感觉挺有趣的。

@whigzhou: 这主要是个文化现象,不从文化方面入手没啥意思

@whigzhou: 我见过一些信仰调查问卷,基本观(more...)

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【2016-07-23】 @linsantu 发表了博文《科学家和哲学家的宗教信仰》(6月24日改自去年知乎回答,7月10日发表于腾讯大家)一我们生活在一个科学主义的时代,科学家(尤其是自然科学家)常常被视为理性与真理的化身。因此一般人在讨论“神 http://t.cn/R5gmmgp @Drunkplane-zny: @whigzhou 辉总也许会对这文章感兴趣。我感觉挺有趣的。 @whigzhou: 这主要是个文化现象,不从文化方面入手没啥意思 @whigzhou: 我见过一些信仰调查问卷,基本观感是,通常它们的问题都问的很蠢,让我无从回答,比如『你认为上帝存在吗?』这种问题,若不澄清其操作性含义,便毫无意义,『你有宗教信仰吗?』也差不多,『你觉得下列哪顶帽子更适合你:无神论者、怀疑论者、不可知论者、基督徒……』稍微好一点,但信息量也不大。 @whigzhou: 假如1950年的一位数学家说自己是基督徒,2010年的一位数学家说自己是无神论者,依我看,这一不同表态对于我们判断他们在基本哲学立场上有何差异毫无帮助。 @whigzhou: 因为如何表态主要取决于他们是否喜欢『基督徒』和『无神论者』这两个词所沾上的文化气味 @whigzhou: 宗教信仰主要是一种文化认同,跟哲学立场没什么关系,或者说两者间关系是高度任意的,『全知全能的上帝规定了物理定律并通过这些定律运行世界』和无神论有什么经验上可辨认差异吗?反之,无神论者照样可以相信灵性、感质和各种天钩。 @whigzhou: 所以,假如你要把宗教当成一个哲学问题来问,那么你的问题就不能这么幼稚或暗含立场,假如你要把它当成文化认同问题来问,那么像『你经常去教堂吗?』『假如你没受过洗,你会在未来受洗吗?』『你常阅读圣经吗?』『教会生活对你重要吗?』『你希望自己的葬礼遵循基督教仪轨吗?』之类的问题会更好。 @whigzhou: 当代美国社会的语境中,信仰问题其实已经收窄到了其伦理方面,即,争议参与者所关切的,主要是其伦理方面,其中要点可表述为:在判定某一人类行动应该与否时,除了个人欲望、理性及其集体表达之外,是否存在某个更高(或最高)的外部指引,若是,它具体给出了哪些指引? @whigzhou: 多数坚守信仰者所意图坚守的,其实是这个,尽管他们自己往往也表达不清楚。  
分明以人代畜

【2016-06-18】

@希波克拉底门徒 今天听说一个朋友要退党,我问他有没有读过圣经,他说没有,我说去信这个的人大多数没完整读完圣经。我最后跟他讲:我尊重你,尊重你的信仰自由权利,但不会尊重基督教信仰。我替你最后选择基督教信仰感到惋惜。希望你在选择一种信仰前,先了解它的来龙去脉、真实面貌,完全不了解就去信,跟不知道对方性格、历史就去领结婚证有什么区别?over

@黄章晋ster: 宗教提供的价值体系的非理性化,恰恰是一个社会道德伦理体系能相对稳定的保证。如果一个社会的道德伦理是可以讨论的,是服从理性的,它必然是不稳定甚至是无从建立的,它必然很快会讨论人肉是否好吃这样(more...)

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【2016-06-18】 @希波克拉底门徒 今天听说一个朋友要退党,我问他有没有读过圣经,他说没有,我说去信这个的人大多数没完整读完圣经。我最后跟他讲:我尊重你,尊重你的信仰自由权利,但不会尊重基督教信仰。我替你最后选择基督教信仰感到惋惜。希望你在选择一种信仰前,先了解它的来龙去脉、真实面貌,完全不了解就去信,跟不知道对方性格、历史就去领结婚证有什么区别?over @黄章晋ster: 宗教提供的价值体系的非理性化,恰恰是一个社会道德伦理体系能相对稳定的保证。如果一个社会的道德伦理是可以讨论的,是服从理性的,它必然是不稳定甚至是无从建立的,它必然很快会讨论人肉是否好吃这样的话题。我们反对器官人肉的自由买卖,其实是自觉使用了宗教提供的绝对伦理。 @黄章晋ster:从社会功能而言,除了为一个社会提供稳定的价值锚链,它还早就衍生出为社会提供反哺和救济功能,社区的化精神纽带功能,跨阶层交流沟通的调适功能……这些社会功能,都是世俗政府无法有效提供的,而西方社会提供类似功能的非宗教社会组织,本身就是宗教组织启发的产物。 @黄章晋ster:我们不用去做历史表现的对照,仅从将来的可能性而言,在彼岸建立天国的信仰和在现世建立人间天国的社会,必然是前者造成灾难的可能性更小。 @黄章晋ster:基督教诞生前的希腊罗马世界,只有崇拜英雄、强者、理性的价值取向,并无同情弱者之类的价值取向,虽然多数人有共情同理心,但不意味着它能上升为稳固的群居规则,尤其是在生产力低下的时代。虽然中国两千年来儒表法里,但儒家伦理若不成意识形态,以韩非子价值观造就的社会必然是斗兽场。 @whigzhou: 前面几点我都没意见,这条不同意 @whigzhou: 需要注意到,所有文明都经历了一个残忍行为逐渐减少的过程,特别是人牲和肉刑的普遍消亡,这个过程发生的很早,宗教在其中似乎并未扮演关键角色 @whigzhou: 去残忍化的过程可能是社会大型化及和平秩序长期持续的自然后果,宗教或意识形态未必是前导因素 @whigzhou: 类似对战场(和角斗场)上的失败者缺乏同情的残酷文化在罗马存续得较久,可能和他的普遍兵役义务有关,当军事职业与其他职业分化更明确,壁垒更森严之后,军事阶层之外的文化就会改变 @whigzhou: 另一方面,就『同情弱者』的经济方面而言,罗马帝国向其公民大派面包可是福利国家的先驱 @baidu冷兵器吧: 希腊和基督教前罗马世界有着长期的慈善行为和组织,这不可能是没有同情价值观的社会 @whigzhou: 对,以后世标准,罗马人表现得缺乏同情心的方面主要是针对战斗中的失败者,依我看这是尚武精神与普遍兵役的结果 @whigzhou: 说起同情心,想到个事情,轿子从北宋开始流行,起初士大夫都鄙视坐轿子的,认为太残忍(也太娘炮),程颐还说『吾不忍乘,分明以人代畜』,但此后轿子地位不断提升,到清代已是官绅富家主要交通工具,是个官没有不坐的,毫无压力,原因显然不是儒家意识形态衰弱,而是人口压力提高,人力益发便宜了。 @whigzhou: 明廷已重新控制北方,清廷更控制了草原,所以这事情不能以缺驴马解释,只能说人比驴便宜。
根本没有发生

【2016-05-15】

@whigzhou: 从上世纪中后期开始,基督教在全球范围的扩张势头逐渐消退…………除了其中最保守、生育率最高的那些教派,目前,加纳有6万多摩门教徒,肯尼亚有15万贵格派教徒,门诺派在埃塞俄比亚有47万信徒(其中26万已受洗),当然,对于主流媒体,这些事情根本没有发生。

@zeroclyy:去年埃博拉病毒感染的医生全家都是传教士,一边治病教书一边传教,感召上帝,奉献自己,传播福音。媒体不在乎,美国福音派和摩(more...)

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【2016-05-15】 @whigzhou: 从上世纪中后期开始,基督教在全球范围的扩张势头逐渐消退…………除了其中最保守、生育率最高的那些教派,目前,加纳有6万多摩门教徒,肯尼亚有15万贵格派教徒,门诺派在埃塞俄比亚有47万信徒(其中26万已受洗),当然,对于主流媒体,这些事情根本没有发生。 @zeroclyy:去年埃博拉病毒感染的医生全家都是传教士,一边治病教书一边传教,感召上帝,奉献自己,传播福音。媒体不在乎,美国福音派和摩门教一直坚持在全球传教,而且都是自愿的,竟然有人说是强迫的!!!,你去强迫试一试? @whigzhou: 非洲少有的一股积极力量