2017年04月发表的文章(4)

不如这样吧

本来想开个微博问答,看起来流程有点麻烦,不想跟渣浪多纠缠,考虑了一下,还不如用最简陋的方法,在博客上玩这个问答游戏吧。

玩法如下:

1)向我的支付宝账号(zhoubiao.jx@gmail.com)转500元人民币,同时在转账说明里附上任何一串你认为有足够识别度的数字;

2)然后以下列任一方式向我发送问题内容——A)email,B)在本帖下面评论,C)发微博并@我(@whigzhou)——同时附上上面那串数字;

3)我会在72小时内将你的问题连同我的回答贴在这个博客上,同时(more...)

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7565
本来想开个微博问答,看起来流程有点麻烦,不想跟渣浪多纠缠,考虑了一下,还不如用最简陋的方法,在博客上玩这个问答游戏吧。 玩法如下: 1)向我的支付宝账号(zhoubiao.jx@gmail.com)转500元人民币,同时在转账说明里附上任何一串你认为有足够识别度的数字; 2)然后以下列任一方式向我发送问题内容——A)email,B)在本帖下面评论,C)发微博并@我(@whigzhou)——同时附上上面那串数字; 3)我会在72小时内将你的问题连同我的回答贴在这个博客上,同时发一条微博,不然就将钱转回你的支付宝账号,但是,假如我在收到你的问题后72小时内已经回答了之前收到的其他问题,那么上述时间限制(72小时)将顺延72小时,换句话说,仅当我收到你的问题后出现连续72小时不回答任何问题的情况时,我才负有退款义务; 4)提问时须说明是否需要匿名,如果选择不匿名,请附上你的名字或ID或不超过30字的更多信息,它们将出现在我的帖子里; 5)问题长度不可超过500字,并且不可骂人,否则我可能既不回答也不退钱; 6)我可能会要求你进一步澄清问题,你也可以要求我澄清某句话的意思,所以问答过程可能来回持续几轮(这些同样可以email、帖子内的评论或微博评论这三种方式之一进行),但同一个问题最多不超过5轮; 7)我打算每天最多回答一个问题,所以如果问题多的话,可能会有较大延迟。 试试看吧。
[译文]复兴中的可再生能源

Europe’s “Green” Power Fueled by Burning Wood
欧洲的“绿色”能源——烧木头

作者:Jamie @ 2017-02-24
译者:eGregius (@eGregius)
校对:龙泉
来源:The American Interest,http://www.the-american-interest.com/2017/02/23/europes-green-power-fueled-by-burning-wood/

Nearly two-thirds of the Europe’s renewable energy comes from burning wood. No, this isn’t some time capsule report from 500 years ago—that’s actually what the European Union is doing to meet its vaunted climate targets. The BBC reports:

欧洲近三分之二的可再生能量来自于木材燃烧——这可不是出自500年前时间胶囊中的记述,而是欧盟为了达到它吹嘘的气候目标所正在做的。据BBC报道:

While much of the discussion has focused on wind and solar power, across Europe the biggest source of green energy is biomass. It supplies around 65% of renewable power – usually electricity generated from burning wood pellets. EU Governments, under pressure to meet tough carbon cutting targets, have been encouraging electricity producers to use more of this form of ener(more...)

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Europe’s “Green” Power Fueled by Burning Wood 欧洲的“绿色”能源——烧木头 作者:Jamie @ 2017-02-24 译者:eGregius (@eGregius) 校对:龙泉 来源:The American Interest,http://www.the-american-interest.com/2017/02/23/europes-green-power-fueled-by-burning-wood/ Nearly two-thirds of the Europe’s renewable energy comes from burning wood. No, this isn’t some time capsule report from 500 years ago—that’s actually what the European Union is doing to meet its vaunted climate targets. The BBC reports: 欧洲近三分之二的可再生能量来自于木材燃烧——这可不是出自500年前时间胶囊中的记述,而是欧盟为了达到它吹嘘的气候目标所正在做的。据BBC报道:
While much of the discussion has focused on wind and solar power, across Europe the biggest source of green energy is biomass. It supplies around 65% of renewable power – usually electricity generated from burning wood pellets. EU Governments, under pressure to meet tough carbon cutting targets, have been encouraging electricity producers to use more of this form of energy by providing substantial subsidies for biomass burning. 尽管有大量的议题集中在风能和太阳能,生物质能仍然是目前整个欧洲最主要的绿色能源。它提供了约65%的可再生能量——以木屑颗粒燃烧发电为主。在严苛的减碳目标压力之下,欧盟各国政府为电力生产商制定了大量的补贴政策以激励他们采用此类能源。
If cutting down trees and burning them doesn’t sound green to you, that’s because, well, it’s not. It only becomes “climate neutral” when you include some clever accounting: if foresters replant a tree for every one they cut down, then from a “life-cycle” perspective, the emissions involved in burning that wood is offset by the carbon captured by the new forests. 如果你觉得伐木烧柴听起来并不那么“绿色”的话,那是因为,它确实不。哪怕你引入一些精明的算计:如果每伐一株木,护林人都会进行再种植,那么从“生命循环”的角度来看,烧柴所导致的碳排放会被新种树木的光合作用抵消,这也仅仅导致“气候中和”。 But a new report from Chatham House scrutinizes that calculus as little more than fuzzy math: 但来自Chatham House的一项最新报道仔细审视了上述算计,发现那仅仅是含糊的数学:
“It doesn’t make sense,” said [Duncan Brack, the report’s author], who is also a former special adviser at the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change. “The fact that forests have grown over the previous 20 or 100 years means they are storing large amounts of carbon, you can’t pretend it doesn’t make an impact on the atmosphere if you cut them down and burn them…You could fix them in wood products or in furniture or you could burn them, but the impact on the climate is very different.” “那说不通,”报道的作者Duncan Brack表示——他同时也是英国能源与气候变化部的前任特别顾问——“无论过去20还是过去100年,森林面积都在增长,这一事实表明森林存储了大量的碳,你没有办法假装砍伐和燃烧它们对气候不会产生任何影响……你可以把这些碳继续固定闸木制品或家具里,你也可以把它们烧掉,但两种做法对气候的影响是很不同的。” Mr Brack says the assumption of carbon neutrality misses out on some crucial issues, including the fact that young trees planted as replacements absorb and store less carbon than the ones that have been burned. Brack先生表示碳中和的设想遗漏了一些重要的问题,包括新种植小树苗的贮碳能力并不及那些被烧掉的树。
This dodgy carbon accounting has come under fire (no pun intended) before, and for good reason: it doesn’t pass the common sense test. Even if you claim that the carbon capturing abilities of felled trees are offset by new forests, you need to consider that those new trees will take decades to reach full maturity—decades in which they won’t be sequestering carbon. Then too, consider that every step of the biomass production process—cutting trees down, trucking them out, machining them into pellets, and then shipping those pellets to the power plants where they’ll be burned—all entail emissions of their own. 这种鸡贼的碳核算方法此前就曾经受舆论炙烤(无意双关),这也理所应当,因为它并不符合常识。即使你声称新种植的木头会替代被伐木贮碳,你也需要考虑到这些替代者需要几十年的时间才能完全成熟——而在这几十年间,它们不怎么会吸碳。此外,想想生物质能生产的各个环节——伐木、运输、加工成颗粒再被运到发电厂(燃烧它们的地方)——都会产生排放。 There’s another big problem here, too. Europe buys much of their wood pellets from outside the bloc, and there’s little in the way of regulatory oversight to ensure felled trees are replanted, opening the door to opportunists looking to make a quick buck. And, as the BBC explains, the vagaries of international carbon accounting are producing some odd numbers for Europe: 还有一个不小的问题。欧洲大量的木屑颗粒采购于欧洲之外,没有多少监管措施去保证被伐木材会有新的树木取代,这为只想着快速捞一笔的机会主义者敞开了大门。正如BBC所解释的,国际间碳核算领域的奇招妙术正在给欧洲制造一些奇怪的数据:
[U]nder UN climate rules, emissions from trees are only counted when they are harvested. However the US, Canada and Russia do not use this method of accounting so if wood pellets are imported from these countries into the EU, which doesn’t count emissions from burning, the carbon simply goes “missing”. 根据联合国制定的气候规则,燃烧木材的排放只在被砍伐时记录一次,然而美国、加拿大和俄罗斯并不采取这样的计算方法,这样一来从这些国家进口到欧盟的木屑颗粒所导致的碳排放便不会被记录,就这么消失了。
With 65 percent of Europe’s renewable energy coming from biomass, you’d think this would be a bigger scandal. Perhaps the Eurocrats in Brussels are unwilling to examine the problem too closely, fearful that an in-depth investigation might kill the region’s best chance at meeting the climate targets it set for itself. Countries in Europe seem to be doubling down on biomass, too, a decision some observers say is “disastrous” for the environment. The longer this goes on, the more apparent it is that the EU cares more about appearing to be green than it does about actually tackling the issues it makes such a big to-do about on the international stage. 若再考虑到欧洲65%的可再生能源由生物质能组成,你会愈发觉得这是一桩丑闻。也许布鲁塞尔的欧盟官员们更愿意与这些调查保持距离,他们害怕深入的调查会让他们达到为自己设定的气候目标的希望落空。同时,欧洲各国在生物质能使用上似乎正在变本加利,一些观察家认为,对生态环境来说,这是“灾难性”的决定。这样的局面持续越久,欧盟的心思就愈发明显——相比应对让他们真正费力的气候问题,他们更在意台面上的“绿色”。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

[译文]税法创造的两朵奇葩

The Power of Taxes To Bend Behavior, Often in Unexpected Ways
税收扭曲行为——以你意想不到的方式

时间:2017-02-12
译者:Luis Rightcon
校对:龙泉
来源:http://www.coyoteblog.com,http://www.coyoteblog.com/coyote_blog/2017/02/the-power-of-taxes-to-bend-behavior-often-in-unexpected-ways.html

Taxes are incredibly powerful things.  Tax something and you will get less of it.  But you might also get more of something you did not expect.  Taxes are the king of generating unintended consequences.  A huge part of human ingenuity (unfortunately) seems to be constantly geared towards evading taxes.  This is one reason I favor completely eliminating the corporate income tax — way too many otherwise productive resources are marshaled towards managing the consequences of these taxes.

税收具有无穷魔力。如果你向某物征税,那么它就会变少。不过你也会得到一些意外收获。税收是非意图后果的制造之王。人类的很大一部分聪明才智看起来都(很不幸的)用在了逃避税收上。这是我为什么倾向于完全废除公司所得税的一个原因。太多生产性资源被配置于对付这些税收造成的后果了。

Last weekend I was in Cabo visiting a few friends and practicing my Spanish. (more...)

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The Power of Taxes To Bend Behavior, Often in Unexpected Ways 税收扭曲行为——以你意想不到的方式 时间:2017-02-12 译者:Luis Rightcon 校对:龙泉 来源:http://www.coyoteblog.com,http://www.coyoteblog.com/coyote_blog/2017/02/the-power-of-taxes-to-bend-behavior-often-in-unexpected-ways.html Taxes are incredibly powerful things.  Tax something and you will get less of it.  But you might also get more of something you did not expect.  Taxes are the king of generating unintended consequences.  A huge part of human ingenuity (unfortunately) seems to be constantly geared towards evading taxes.  This is one reason I favor completely eliminating the corporate income tax -- way too many otherwise productive resources are marshaled towards managing the consequences of these taxes. 税收具有无穷魔力。如果你向某物征税,那么它就会变少。不过你也会得到一些意外收获。税收是非意图后果的制造之王。人类的很大一部分聪明才智看起来都(很不幸的)用在了逃避税收上。这是我为什么倾向于完全废除公司所得税的一个原因。太多生产性资源被配置于对付这些税收造成的后果了。 Last weekend I was in Cabo visiting a few friends and practicing my Spanish.  Many of the buildings in town (at least away from the resort areas) look like this: 上周末我去Cabo城【译注:位于墨西哥下加利福尼亚半岛的一座城市】拜访一帮朋友顺便练习西班牙语。许多建筑(至少远离度假村的地方)看起来像这样: DSC_0726 This is a small retail commercial building with going concerns on the first floor (actually finished pretty nicely) but rebar and stuff sticking up from what looks like an unfinished second floor.   This is just one of many, many buildings that look like this.  My friend, who has run a resort in Cabo for decades, asked me what I thought was going on.  I said I assumed it was some sort of third world thing, perhaps a lack of financing that meant the first floor has to operate to generate cash flow for the second floor. 这是一栋一楼正在营业的小商业建筑(实际上一楼做的很棒),但是屋顶朝天戳着的钢筋和其他建筑材料使得二楼看起来没有完成。这只是许许多多同类建筑中的一个。我那位在Cabo开了几十年零售店的朋友问我:你觉得这是怎么回事?。我说我觉得这像一个第三世界的产物,资金短缺使得需要用一楼产生的现金流来支持二楼的工程。 He answered that yes, there was very little financing for small business and real estate development so that sort of thing did happen.  But what was really going on here is tax management.  Until construction is completed, this structure is taxed as raw land rather than as a valuable commercial building.  It was typical practice to get approved for a two story building in the original plans, then stop construction after completing the first floor (which was all that was wanted anyway) and act like the building is still under construction.   Voila (ed: lol, oops) -- ugly building but hefty tax reduction. 他答道,小型企业和小房地产开发商的很少融资,所以这种事情确实会发生。但是在这里,真正的原因是避税。直到完工之前,这个地块都会被当作未开发土地而不是按有价值商业建筑征税。这栋建筑是个典型案例:最初获批时规划了两层,在完成第一层后停工(本来就是这么打算的),这栋建筑就像是仍然在施工一样。啊哈,丑陋但是可以躲掉很多税负的建筑。 For those of you who want to write this off as a third world phenomenon, I will offer a similar example from personal experience.  Some years ago, because I did not have enough value-destroying investments in my life, I bought some raw land in Hawaii.  It is actually in a gated community, about half-built-out, but if you drive past my land you will likely see a cow on it. 假如你认为这是第三世界特有现象,那我再举个相似的例子。若干年前,在我还没做那么多亏本投资之前,我在夏威夷买了一块荒地。它实际上位于一个封闭社区内,大概建好了一半,但是如果你开车经过我那块地,你会发现上边有一头奶牛。 What is a cow doing in a gated community on residential land?  Well, that is the point.  Without the cow, the land gets taxed as residential land.  With the cow, the land gets taxed as ranch land at perhaps a tenth the rate.  The homeowners association helps those of us with raw land to split the cost of the cows. 在建于住宅用地之上的封闭社区里放一头奶牛干啥呢?嗯,这个才是重点。如果没有这头奶牛的话,我这块荒地会被当成住宅用地征税。而有了这头奶牛,这块地则会被当成税率只有住宅用地十分之一的牧场征税。业主协会帮助我们这样的业主分担奶牛养殖的费用。 DSC_0065 Update:  Here are the Hawaiian cows, next to one of my neighbor's front gate.  While they are more attractive than the exposed rebar on the building in Cabo, they serve the same purpose. 更新:这些就是夏威夷的奶牛,旁边是我邻居的前门。虽然这些牛比Cabo城里那些裸露钢筋要好看一点,但是它们的作用却是一样的。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

Bannon

【2017-04-13】

Bannon出局将是川普上台以来最大转折,他可能就此被拉回保守派正轨。川普看似彪悍,其实耳朵根挺软,Bannon被除掉后,剩下的几位基本靠谱。 ​​​​

 

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【2017-04-13】 Bannon出局将是川普上台以来最大转折,他可能就此被拉回保守派正轨。川普看似彪悍,其实耳朵根挺软,Bannon被除掉后,剩下的几位基本靠谱。 ​​​​