[译文]最低工资的另一种妙用

MINIMUM WAGE AND DISCRIMINATION
最低工资歧视

A look at the racist history of the minimum wage.
最低工资中的种族歧视历史一瞥

作者:Walter Williams @ 2017-02-08
译者:龟海海
校对:龙泉
来源:Frontpage Mag,http://www.frontpagemag.com/fpm/265734/minimum-wage-and-discrimination-walter-williams

There is little question in most academic research that increases in the minimum wage lead to increases in unemployment. The debatable issue is the magnitude of the increase. An issue not often included in minimum wage debates is the substitution effects of minimum wage increases. The substitution effect might explain why Business for a Fair Minimum Wage, a national network of business owners and executives, argues for higher minimum wages. Let’s look at substitution effects in general.

提高最低工资会引起失业率上升,这一观点在大多数学术研究中都没多大争议。争议在于提高最低工资所能引起的失业率增加的幅度。一项最低工资辩论中不怎么讨论的议题是其增长所引发的“替代效应”。“替代效应”解释了为什么“商界支持合理最低工资”这个全国性企业主和管理者网站,也会主张更高的最低工资。那我们今天就讲一讲什么是“替代效应”。

When the price of anything rises, people seek substitutes and measures to economize. When gasoline prices rise, people seek to economize on the usage of gas by buying smaller cars. If the price of sugar rises, people seek cheaper sugar substitutes. If prices of goods in one store rise, people search for other stores. This last example helps explain why some businessmen support higher minimum wages. If they could impose higher labor costs on their less efficient competition, it might help drive them out of business. That would enable firms that survive to charge higher prices and earn greater profits.

当任何东西的价格上涨时,人们会寻求其他更实惠的替代品。当汽油价格上涨时,人们通过购买小型汽车(小排量)来节省油耗。如果一种糖的价格上涨,人们寻求更便宜的糖来替代。如果一家商店的商品价格上涨,人们寻找其他商店。最后一个例子有助于解释为什么有些商人支持更高的最低工资。如果可以对低效率的竞争对手施以更高的劳动力成本,这就可能使这些企业歇业。之后存活下来的公司可以提高产品价格并赚得更多利润。

There’s a more insidious substitution effect of higher minimum wages. You see it by putting yourself in the place of a businessman who has to pay at least the minimum wage to anyone he hires. Say that you are hiring typists. There are some who can type 40 words per minute and others, equal in every other respect, who can type 80 words per minute. Whom would you hire? I’m guessing you’d hire the more highly skilled.

更高的最低工资线还有隐蔽的“替代效应”。你从商人的角度就不难看出,无论如何他必须支付最低工资给所有他雇用的人。假如:你正在招聘打字员。有些人可以每分钟输入40个单词,在其他方面条件相同的情况下,有人每分钟可以输入80个单词。你会雇佣谁? 我猜你会雇佣技艺精湛的那个。

Thus, one effect of the minimum wage is discrimination against the employment of lower-skilled workers. In some places, the minimum wage is $15 an hour. But if a lower-skilled worker could offer to work for, say, $8 an hour, you might hire him. In addition to discrimination against lower-skilled workers, the minimum wage denies them the chance of sharpening their skills and ultimately earning higher wages. The most effective form of training for most of us is on-the-job training.

因此,最低工资的影响之一是对低技能工人的歧视。在某些地方,最低工资是每小时15美元。但是,例如一个低技能工人愿意以每小时8美元为你工作,你可能会雇用他。除了对低技能工人的歧视外,最低工资阻碍了他们提升自己的技能并最终获得更高的工资的机会。对我们大多数人来说,最有效的培训形式是在工作中学习。

An even more insidious substitution effect of minimum wages can be seen from a few quotations. During South Africa’s apartheid era, racist unions, which would never accept a black member, were the major supporters of minimum wages for blacks. In 1925, the South African Economic and Wage Commission said, “The method would be to fix a minimum rate for an occupation or craft so high that no Native would be likely to be employed.”

最低工资更隐蔽的“替代效应”可以从几个引证中看出。在南非的种族隔离时代,种族主义者的工会绝对不会接受黑人成员,而这些人正是黑人最低工资的主要支持者。在1925年,南非经济和工资委员会说,“该方法将为某些职业(低技能)固定最低工资,技艺精湛者工资非常高,以至于土著几乎找不到工作。”

Gert Beetge, secretary of the racist Building Workers’ Union, complained, “There is no job reservation left in the building industry, and in the circumstances, I support the rate for the job (minimum wage) as the second-best way of protecting our white artisans.” “Equal pay for equal work” became the rallying slogan of the South African white labor movement. These laborers knew that if employers were forced to pay black workers the same wages as white workers, there’d be reduced incentive to hire blacks.

种族主义的建筑工人联盟秘书Gert Beetge抱怨:“建筑业没有工作职位空缺,在这种情况下,我支持建筑业施行(最低工资),作为对白人工匠们最好的保护措施。“同工同酬”成为南非白人工人运动的口号。这些工人知道,如果雇主被迫向黑人工匠支付与白人工匠相同的工资,那么就会减少雇用黑人的动机。

South Africans were not alone in their minimum wage conspiracy against blacks. After a bitter 1909 strike by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen in the U.S., an arbitration board decreed that blacks and whites were to be paid equal wages. Union members expressed their delight, saying, “If this course of action is followed by the company and the incentive for employing the Negro thus removed, the strike will not have been in vain.”

南非人用最低工资对付黑人的阴谋并非孤例。在经历了美国火车司炉工与引擎师兄弟会1909年一次罢工所带来的痛苦之后,仲裁委员会颁布仲裁令:黑人和白人应支付同等水平工资。工会成员表达了他们的喜悦,说:“如果公司遵循这一仲裁令,并且雇用黑人的动机便不复存在,罢工就没有白费。”

Our nation’s first minimum wage law, the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931, had racist motivation. During its legislative debate, its congressional supporters made such statements as, “That contractor has cheap colored labor that he transports, and he puts them in cabins, and it is labor of that sort that is in competition with white labor throughout the country.” During hearings, American Federation of Labor President William Green complained, “Colored labor is being sought to demoralize wage rates.”

我国第一个最低工资法,1931年《戴維斯-培根法》,也有种族主义动机。在其立法辩论期间,国会中的支持者发表了如下声明:“承包商运送廉价的有色人种劳动力,把他们安置在小棚屋里,正是这类劳动力在与全国各地的白人劳动者竞争。”在听证会上,美国劳工联合会主席威廉·格林抱怨说:“有色人种的劳动力正在谋求将工资率拉低到令人沮丧的水平。”

Today’s stated intentions behind the support of minimum wages are nothing like yesteryear’s. However, intentions are irrelevant. In the name of decency, we must examine the effects.

如今的支持最低工资背后的意图与往昔截然不同。 然而,意图是无关紧要的。为体面起见,我们必须仔细考虑其影响。

(编辑:辉格@whigzhou)

*注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——

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MINIMUM WAGE AND DISCRIMINATION 最低工资歧视 A look at the racist history of the minimum wage. 最低工资中的种族歧视历史一瞥 作者:Walter Williams @ 2017-02-08 译者:龟海海 校对:龙泉 来源:Frontpage Mag,http://www.frontpagemag.com/fpm/265734/minimum-wage-and-discrimination-walter-williams There is little question in most academic research that increases in the minimum wage lead to increases in unemployment. The debatable issue is the magnitude of the increase. An issue not often included in minimum wage debates is the substitution effects of minimum wage increases. The substitution effect might explain why Business for a Fair Minimum Wage, a national network of business owners and executives, argues for higher minimum wages. Let's look at substitution effects in general. 提高最低工资会引起失业率上升,这一观点在大多数学术研究中都没多大争议。争议在于提高最低工资所能引起的失业率增加的幅度。一项最低工资辩论中不怎么讨论的议题是其增长所引发的“替代效应”。“替代效应”解释了为什么“商界支持合理最低工资”这个全国性企业主和管理者网站,也会主张更高的最低工资。那我们今天就讲一讲什么是“替代效应”。 When the price of anything rises, people seek substitutes and measures to economize. When gasoline prices rise, people seek to economize on the usage of gas by buying smaller cars. If the price of sugar rises, people seek cheaper sugar substitutes. If prices of goods in one store rise, people search for other stores. This last example helps explain why some businessmen support higher minimum wages. If they could impose higher labor costs on their less efficient competition, it might help drive them out of business. That would enable firms that survive to charge higher prices and earn greater profits. 当任何东西的价格上涨时,人们会寻求其他更实惠的替代品。当汽油价格上涨时,人们通过购买小型汽车(小排量)来节省油耗。如果一种糖的价格上涨,人们寻求更便宜的糖来替代。如果一家商店的商品价格上涨,人们寻找其他商店。最后一个例子有助于解释为什么有些商人支持更高的最低工资。如果可以对低效率的竞争对手施以更高的劳动力成本,这就可能使这些企业歇业。之后存活下来的公司可以提高产品价格并赚得更多利润。 There's a more insidious substitution effect of higher minimum wages. You see it by putting yourself in the place of a businessman who has to pay at least the minimum wage to anyone he hires. Say that you are hiring typists. There are some who can type 40 words per minute and others, equal in every other respect, who can type 80 words per minute. Whom would you hire? I'm guessing you'd hire the more highly skilled. 更高的最低工资线还有隐蔽的“替代效应”。你从商人的角度就不难看出,无论如何他必须支付最低工资给所有他雇用的人。假如:你正在招聘打字员。有些人可以每分钟输入40个单词,在其他方面条件相同的情况下,有人每分钟可以输入80个单词。你会雇佣谁? 我猜你会雇佣技艺精湛的那个。 Thus, one effect of the minimum wage is discrimination against the employment of lower-skilled workers. In some places, the minimum wage is $15 an hour. But if a lower-skilled worker could offer to work for, say, $8 an hour, you might hire him. In addition to discrimination against lower-skilled workers, the minimum wage denies them the chance of sharpening their skills and ultimately earning higher wages. The most effective form of training for most of us is on-the-job training. 因此,最低工资的影响之一是对低技能工人的歧视。在某些地方,最低工资是每小时15美元。但是,例如一个低技能工人愿意以每小时8美元为你工作,你可能会雇用他。除了对低技能工人的歧视外,最低工资阻碍了他们提升自己的技能并最终获得更高的工资的机会。对我们大多数人来说,最有效的培训形式是在工作中学习。 An even more insidious substitution effect of minimum wages can be seen from a few quotations. During South Africa's apartheid era, racist unions, which would never accept a black member, were the major supporters of minimum wages for blacks. In 1925, the South African Economic and Wage Commission said, "The method would be to fix a minimum rate for an occupation or craft so high that no Native would be likely to be employed." 最低工资更隐蔽的“替代效应”可以从几个引证中看出。在南非的种族隔离时代,种族主义者的工会绝对不会接受黑人成员,而这些人正是黑人最低工资的主要支持者。在1925年,南非经济和工资委员会说,“该方法将为某些职业(低技能)固定最低工资,技艺精湛者工资非常高,以至于土著几乎找不到工作。” Gert Beetge, secretary of the racist Building Workers' Union, complained, "There is no job reservation left in the building industry, and in the circumstances, I support the rate for the job (minimum wage) as the second-best way of protecting our white artisans." "Equal pay for equal work" became the rallying slogan of the South African white labor movement. These laborers knew that if employers were forced to pay black workers the same wages as white workers, there'd be reduced incentive to hire blacks. 种族主义的建筑工人联盟秘书Gert Beetge抱怨:“建筑业没有工作职位空缺,在这种情况下,我支持建筑业施行(最低工资),作为对白人工匠们最好的保护措施。“同工同酬”成为南非白人工人运动的口号。这些工人知道,如果雇主被迫向黑人工匠支付与白人工匠相同的工资,那么就会减少雇用黑人的动机。 South Africans were not alone in their minimum wage conspiracy against blacks. After a bitter 1909 strike by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen in the U.S., an arbitration board decreed that blacks and whites were to be paid equal wages. Union members expressed their delight, saying, "If this course of action is followed by the company and the incentive for employing the Negro thus removed, the strike will not have been in vain." 南非人用最低工资对付黑人的阴谋并非孤例。在经历了美国火车司炉工与引擎师兄弟会1909年一次罢工所带来的痛苦之后,仲裁委员会颁布仲裁令:黑人和白人应支付同等水平工资。工会成员表达了他们的喜悦,说:“如果公司遵循这一仲裁令,并且雇用黑人的动机便不复存在,罢工就没有白费。” Our nation's first minimum wage law, the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931, had racist motivation. During its legislative debate, its congressional supporters made such statements as, "That contractor has cheap colored labor that he transports, and he puts them in cabins, and it is labor of that sort that is in competition with white labor throughout the country." During hearings, American Federation of Labor President William Green complained, "Colored labor is being sought to demoralize wage rates." 我国第一个最低工资法,1931年《戴維斯-培根法》,也有种族主义动机。在其立法辩论期间,国会中的支持者发表了如下声明:“承包商运送廉价的有色人种劳动力,把他们安置在小棚屋里,正是这类劳动力在与全国各地的白人劳动者竞争。”在听证会上,美国劳工联合会主席威廉·格林抱怨说:“有色人种的劳动力正在谋求将工资率拉低到令人沮丧的水平。” Today's stated intentions behind the support of minimum wages are nothing like yesteryear's. However, intentions are irrelevant. In the name of decency, we must examine the effects. 如今的支持最低工资背后的意图与往昔截然不同。 然而,意图是无关紧要的。为体面起见,我们必须仔细考虑其影响。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——



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