[译文]为何伊朗移民成于美国却败于瑞典

Why Iranian migrants succeed in the US but fail in Sweden
为何伊朗移民成于美国却败于瑞典

作者:Nima Sanandaji @NimaSanandaji @ 2015-3-23
译者:Eartha(@王小贰_Eartha)
校对:小册子(@昵称被抢的小册子)
来源:CapX,http://www.capx.co/why-iranian-migrants-succeed-in-the-us-but-fail-in-sweden/

Maryam Mirzakhani was born in Iran in 1977. Showing an early gift for mathematics, she received a degree from Sharif University of Technology in Tehran. After moving to the US, Maryam earned her PhD from Harvard before becoming a young professor at Stanford.

玛利亚姆·米尔扎哈尼(Maryam Mirzakhani)于1977年出生在伊朗。她早早就显示出数学方面的天赋,并取得了位于德黑兰的谢里夫理工大学的学位。移居美国之后,玛利亚姆攻读了哈佛大学的博士学位,后成为斯坦福大学的一名年轻教授。

Last summer she was awarded the International Medal for Outstanding Discoveries in Mathematics. Maryam was the first women to win the medal, unofficially referred to as the “Nobel Prize of mathematics”. Since it was established in 1936, all previous winners have been male.

去年夏天,她成为史上第一位获得菲尔兹奖的女性,该奖有着“数学界诺贝尔奖”之称。自该奖项于1936年设立以来,所有获奖者均为男性。

The story of Maryam is not only one of an unusually talented individual. It is also in line with a wider social phenomenon, where upward-striving Iranians rely on a winning mix of eastern culture and western institutions. This success however, has been easier to reach in some western nations than others.

玛利亚姆的故事不仅仅只关于一个天赋异禀的个人,还反映了一个更普遍的社会现象——奋发向上的伊朗人成功将东方文化与西方体制融合。然而,这种成功在某些西方国家相对更容易实现一些。

In 2003, administrators at Stanford University’s Electrical Engineering Department were reportedly startled. The notoriously difficult entrance exam for PhD studies had been aced by a group of foreign students.

2003年时,据说斯坦福大学电气工程系的考官们很吃惊,因为一群外国学生在以艰难著称的博士学位入学考试取得了优异成绩。

It was no surprise that smart kids from Asia were on top. What was more unexpected is that the majority originated from one place – the same Sharif University where Maryam had studied. Stanford is not an isolated example. Iranian top students are doing well in the international Science Olympiads, and flourishing in foreign universities.

来自亚洲的聪明孩子名列前茅并不让人吃惊,可出人意料的是,这群学生中的大多数来自同一个地方——玛利亚姆曾就读的谢里夫理工大学。斯坦福并不是个例。伊朗的顶尖学生在国际科学奥林匹克竞赛中成绩出色,并在国外各个大学中表现优异。

This achievement wouldn’t be surprising if Iran was anything like Singapore, Korea or Taiwan. Pupils in the latter countries outperform the rest of the globe in mathematics, according to the survey Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Iranian pupils on the other hand have considerably lower scores than in developed countries such as the US or in Western Europe.

如果伊朗是像新加坡、韩国或者台湾那样的地方,那么这些成就就并不让人吃惊。根据一项名为“国际数学与科学研究的发展趋势”的系列调查,来自后面这些国家的学生在数学方面的表现优于全球其他地区。而伊朗学生的分数则明显低于美国与西欧等发达国家。

How can a country with poor school performance export so many talents? One explanation is that Iran has an elitist school system, where talents such as Maryam are identified early and sent to a few top high schools.

为何一个学校表现不佳的国家能输出如此多的天才?一种解释认为,伊朗有一套精英学校体制,该体制能及早发现像玛利亚姆这样的天才,并将其送往少数顶尖高中学习。

The country has a competitive higher education system and few opportunities for those who do not succeed. To make it in life, many young Iranians study hard in high school. The dream is often to venture abroad. Since the 1979 revolution Iran has been characterized by continuous brain‑drain.

这个国家的高等教育体制竞争十分激烈,为失败者提供的机会少之又少。为了获得成功,许多伊朗年轻人在高中阶段刻苦学习,通常梦想着去国外闯荡一番。1979革命之后,伊朗一直面临着持续的人才流失。

A couple of generations ago, it was quite uncommon for Iranians to leave their native land. During recent times however, an Iranian diaspora of around 4 to 5 million individuals have evolved abroad. One example is the Iranian community in the US.

几代人以前,伊朗人很少离开故土。但是,伊朗人的海外移民近年来已逐渐发展至四、五百万人的规模。美国的伊朗人群体就是其中一例。

According to the US census in 1990, 221 000 persons of Iranian ancestry were at the time residing in the country. Slightly less than a quarter were born in the US from Iranian parents. Almost half of the remainder had resided in the country for less than ten years.

根据美国1990年的人口普查,当时有221,000名伊朗血统的人居住在美国,其中近四分之一出生于美国,双亲都是伊朗人。其余的人中有近一半在美国居住未满十年。

Still, the group was thriving economically. The poverty level amongst Iranians was only marginally higher than the national average. In fact, the median house income of Iranians was 22 percent higher than the national average. One explanation is that some Iranians migrants had brought wealth with them.

然而,这个群体在经济上欣欣向荣。在美伊朗人的贫困率仅略高于全美平均水平。但事实上,他们的家庭收入中位数却比全美平均水平高出22%。有一种解释是一些伊朗移民将他们的财富也转移到了国外。

Likely more important is their stock of knowledge capital. Amongst Iranians over 25 years of age, fully 26 percent had graduate degree or higher. At the time, this was almost four times the US average.

但更重要的可能是他们自身的知识资本储备。25岁以上的伊朗人中,足足有26%的人获得了硕士以上学位。在那时,这几乎是美国平均水平的四倍。

According to the 2013 American Community Survey, the number of Iranians had grown to some 460 000 (the true population might be considerably higher, since many do not identify themselves as “Iranian” on the census). The median household income of Iranians was $64 752, compared to a national average of $52 250.

根据2013年的美国社区调查,在美伊朗人的数量已增长至460,000人左右(真实数据可能还会高很多,因为很多人在普查中没把自己当做“伊朗人”)。伊朗人的家庭收入中位数为64,752美元,而全美平均水平为52,250美元。

Adjusting for household size, the per capita income of Iranians was $43 334, far higher than the national average of $28 155. The share with bachelor’s degree or higher was 61.9 percent amongst Iranians, compared to 28.8 percent for the average American.

根据家庭规模对数据进行调整后,伊朗人的人均收入为43,334美元,远远高于全美人均收入28,155美元。伊朗人中拥有学士学位以上学历的人占61.9%,而美国平均水平为28.8%。

Culture plays a key part in the Iranian success story. To begin with, knowledge is treasured. This is apparent in the Persian language, where occupation-bound terms of address are common. Someone who is a doctor, a “mohandes” (engineer) or “vakil” (lawyer) is addressed as such.

文化在伊朗式成功故事中起到了关键作用。首先,知识受到重视。这在波斯语中就表现的十分明显。与职业相关的称呼非常普遍,医生、工程师或者律师就被人以职业相称。

Having a good degree is not merely a source of pride for the individual, but for the family as a whole. The culture prevalent amongst the Iranian diaspora also emphasizes individual achievement, wealth accumulation and business-ownership.

拥有高学历是个人乃至整个家庭骄傲的资本。伊朗移民群体中的主流文化还强调个人成就、财富积累和生意家业。

Iran itself still lacks the education system, market based economy and high levels of trust needed for these cultural attributed to bear fruit. Western countries as the US however do. By adapting to western society, Iranians also leave behind some cultural traits: such as low trust for strangers and old-fashioned gender roles.

伊朗国内仍旧缺乏使得这些文化因素能够结出果实的良好的教育体制、市场经济和高度信任感。但美国等西方国家就具备这些条件。在融入西方社会的过程中,伊朗人也摒弃了一些文化特质,诸如对陌生人的不信任感和传统的性别角色观念。

Mehdi Bozorgmehr and Daniel Douglas conclude that the children of Iranian immigrants in the US have a more balanced achievement across gender lines: “in terms of educational attainment and labor force participation, females have quickly closed the gap with their male counterparts.”

Mehdi Bozorgmehr与Daniel Douglas(在两人合著的文章“Success(ion): Second-Generation Iranian Americans.”中)总结认为,美国伊朗移民后裔的成就在性别上更为平衡:“就教育程度与就业而言,女性正在快速缩小与男性竞争者的差距。”

The success of Iranians in the US can to some degree be explained by the fact that some of the rich elite fled Iran to New York and Los Angeles. In this regard, Canada differs from the US. Over the period 1978 to 1990 Iranians mainly came as political refugees. Later arrivals include refugees, family immigrants as well as students.

伊朗的部分富有精英阶层逃往纽约与洛杉矶这一事实,可在某种程度上解释伊朗人在美国的成功。就此而言,加拿大的情形与美国不同。1978-1990年间,伊朗人主要以政治难民的身份进入加拿大。随后到来的人则包括难民、亲属移民与学生。

According to the 2006 census, some 121 000 individuals of Iranian origin were at the time residing in Canada. One in six was born in Canada, while the remainders were immigrants. Nearly 30 percent of the immigrants had arrived in Canada during the last five years. This explains why 34 percent of Iranians lived below the low-income cut off before tax in 2006, almost three times the national average.

根据2006年加拿大人口普查,大约有121,000名伊朗裔居住在加拿大,其中六分之一出生于加拿大,其余的则是移民,且近30%是在最近五年内来到加拿大。这解释了为何2006年有34%的伊朗人税前收入在低收入指标以下,这一比例几乎三倍于全国平均水平。

With time however, integration occurs in the Canadian economy. The same census shows that full year working Iranians had merely twelve percent lower median incomes than the average Canadian – a good outcome for a group with many recent arrivals. The situation is quite different in another snowy part of the world: the Nordics.

然而,随着时间推移,加拿大的经济逐渐呈融合之势。该份人口普查报告也同时表明,全年工作的伊朗人收入中位数仅比加拿大平均水平低12%——这对一个新来者众多的群体来说是个不错的结果。但在世界的另一片冰雪地带——北欧,情况却大不相同。

Sweden has received a large influx of migrants from Iran. Today, Iranian immigrants and their children make up nearly one percent of Sweden’s population. As in Canada, the group has a strong educational background.

瑞典已接收了一大批伊朗移民。现在,伊朗移民和他们的下一代已占瑞典人口1%左右。和在加拿大一样,瑞典伊朗移民群体有着优秀的教育背景。

A study has however shown that in 1999, around 15 years after the average Iranian migrated to Sweden, a large segment was still trapped in welfare dependency. Merely a third of Iranian households supported themselves mainly through work at this time. The households were either depending on public support or low incomes from work.

但一项研究表明,在1999年,移民至瑞典平均近15年后,相当一部分伊朗人仍旧仰仗福利救济为生。当时,仅有三分之一的伊朗家庭能通过工作自食其力。伊朗家庭不是依赖公共救济,就是靠着微薄的工资勉强度日。

Another study has calculated the income from work between 1993 and 2000 for those born in Iran. It is shown that this amounted only to 61 percent of the average work income of a native Swede. With time, the situation of Iranians in Sweden has improved. But amongst the first generation, many have not been given the opportunity to fulfill their potential.

另一项研究计算了出生于伊朗的瑞典人口在1993-2000年间的工作收入,其水平仅是瑞典本土人的61%。随着时间推移,伊朗人在瑞典的境况正渐渐变好。但是,在第一代移民中,很多人未能得到机会去发挥他们的潜能。

A similar situation exists in neighboring Norway. A study by Statistics Norway has found that Iranians in Norway have unusually high educational level compared to other immigrant groups. However, fully 41 percent of adult Iranians surveyed responded that they were unemployed and actively seeking work at some point during 2006 – well before the global financial crises.

相似的情况也存在于瑞典的邻国挪威。挪威统计局的一项研究表明,相比于挪威的其他移民群体,伊朗人有着不一般的高教育水平。但是,参与调查的伊朗成年人中有足足41%的人回应说他们在2006年曾处于失业状态,并积极寻找工作——彼时全球经济危机还远未来临。

It is no coincidence that the US and Canada offer greater opportunities for upward social mobility of Iranian migrants. The economic structures in Sweden and Norway – based on strict wage-setting, rigid labor laws, high taxes and generous benefits – makes it more difficult and less rewarding to enter the labor market.

美国和加拿大为伊朗移民提供了更多进入社会上层的机会,这并非巧合。瑞典和挪威的经济结构建立于严格的工资设定、严苛的劳工法律、高赋税和慷慨的社会福利之上,这使得进入劳动力市场变得困难,得到的回报也更少。

Interestingly enough, welfare‑entrapment has not fully eroded the Iranian success story. Most young Iranians in Sweden have grown up supported by welfare handout and/or low work incomes. Yet, no group is as keen on earning a higher education as young Iranians.

不过有趣的是,福利的诱惑并未就此完全打断伊朗人的成功故事。瑞典的大多数伊朗年轻人靠着社会救济或微薄工作收入长大,但没有一个群体像他们那样渴望接受高等教育。

A study has shown that 45 percent of native Swedes have started higher education at the age of 25. This is considerably higher than 37 percent amongst the average immigrants. Iranians are a clear outlier, since 60 percent have begun higher education at the same age.

一项研究显示,45%的瑞典本土人在25岁时已开始接受高等教育,比移民的平均水平37%要高出一截。但伊朗人明显是个异数,有60%的同龄人已开始接受高等教育。

Countries such as Sweden societies have created higher obstacles to labor market inclusion than the more free‑market based Anglo-Saxon societies. For immigrant groups such as Iranians, the effect is greater entrapment in social poverty through welfare-dependency.

相比于自由市场经济成分更多的盎格鲁-撒克逊社会,瑞典式国家为进入劳动市场设置了较高的门槛。这诱使包括伊朗人在内的移民群体因依赖社会福利而深陷社会性贫困。

At the same time, Sweden offers fully publicly supported education to their citizens. Some young Iranians remain in the socially marginalized class that their parents were trapped in. Many more have begun climbing the social ladder through primarily education, but also business ownership and hard work.

同时,瑞典又为其国民提供全公费教育。一些年轻伊朗人和他们的父辈一样,仍陷于社会边缘群体。但更多的人正依靠他们所受的教育、自身的商业成就和勤奋工作努力地沿着社会阶梯向上攀登。

The social reward for becoming a doctor, a “mohandes” or a “vakil” remains strong in the group. Young Iranians are still encouraged to make their parents proud by earning a higher degree or founding a successful business. In Sweden, as well as in Canada and the US, the intermarriage between eastern culture and western institutions creates a route to up-ward social mobility.

在这个群体中,成为医生、工程师或律师可获得高昂的社会奖励。年轻伊朗人仍在被鼓励着去获取高学历或成功创业以为其父母脸上增光。在瑞典,正如在加拿大和美国那样,东方文化与西方制度的混合作用为在社会向上流动提供了一条新路径。

(编辑:辉格@whigzhou)

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Why Iranian migrants succeed in the US but fail in Sweden 为何伊朗移民成于美国却败于瑞典 作者:Nima Sanandaji @NimaSanandaji @ 2015-3-23 译者:Eartha(@王小贰_Eartha) 校对:小册子(@昵称被抢的小册子) 来源:CapX,http://www.capx.co/why-iranian-migrants-succeed-in-the-us-but-fail-in-sweden/ Maryam Mirzakhani was born in Iran in 1977. Showing an early gift for mathematics, she received a degree from Sharif University of Technology in Tehran. After moving to the US, Maryam earned her PhD from Harvard before becoming a young professor at Stanford. 玛利亚姆·米尔扎哈尼(Maryam Mirzakhani)于1977年出生在伊朗。她早早就显示出数学方面的天赋,并取得了位于德黑兰的谢里夫理工大学的学位。移居美国之后,玛利亚姆攻读了哈佛大学的博士学位,后成为斯坦福大学的一名年轻教授。 Last summer she was awarded the International Medal for Outstanding Discoveries in Mathematics. Maryam was the first women to win the medal, unofficially referred to as the “Nobel Prize of mathematics”. Since it was established in 1936, all previous winners have been male. 去年夏天,她成为史上第一位获得菲尔兹奖的女性,该奖有着“数学界诺贝尔奖”之称。自该奖项于1936年设立以来,所有获奖者均为男性。 The story of Maryam is not only one of an unusually talented individual. It is also in line with a wider social phenomenon, where upward-striving Iranians rely on a winning mix of eastern culture and western institutions. This success however, has been easier to reach in some western nations than others. 玛利亚姆的故事不仅仅只关于一个天赋异禀的个人,还反映了一个更普遍的社会现象——奋发向上的伊朗人成功将东方文化与西方体制融合。然而,这种成功在某些西方国家相对更容易实现一些。 In 2003, administrators at Stanford University’s Electrical Engineering Department were reportedly startled. The notoriously difficult entrance exam for PhD studies had been aced by a group of foreign students. 2003年时,据说斯坦福大学电气工程系的考官们很吃惊,因为一群外国学生在以艰难著称的博士学位入学考试取得了优异成绩。 It was no surprise that smart kids from Asia were on top. What was more unexpected is that the majority originated from one place – the same Sharif University where Maryam had studied. Stanford is not an isolated example. Iranian top students are doing well in the international Science Olympiads, and flourishing in foreign universities. 来自亚洲的聪明孩子名列前茅并不让人吃惊,可出人意料的是,这群学生中的大多数来自同一个地方——玛利亚姆曾就读的谢里夫理工大学。斯坦福并不是个例。伊朗的顶尖学生在国际科学奥林匹克竞赛中成绩出色,并在国外各个大学中表现优异。 This achievement wouldn’t be surprising if Iran was anything like Singapore, Korea or Taiwan. Pupils in the latter countries outperform the rest of the globe in mathematics, according to the survey Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Iranian pupils on the other hand have considerably lower scores than in developed countries such as the US or in Western Europe. 如果伊朗是像新加坡、韩国或者台湾那样的地方,那么这些成就就并不让人吃惊。根据一项名为“国际数学与科学研究的发展趋势”的系列调查,来自后面这些国家的学生在数学方面的表现优于全球其他地区。而伊朗学生的分数则明显低于美国与西欧等发达国家。 How can a country with poor school performance export so many talents? One explanation is that Iran has an elitist school system, where talents such as Maryam are identified early and sent to a few top high schools. 为何一个学校表现不佳的国家能输出如此多的天才?一种解释认为,伊朗有一套精英学校体制,该体制能及早发现像玛利亚姆这样的天才,并将其送往少数顶尖高中学习。 The country has a competitive higher education system and few opportunities for those who do not succeed. To make it in life, many young Iranians study hard in high school. The dream is often to venture abroad. Since the 1979 revolution Iran has been characterized by continuous brain‑drain. 这个国家的高等教育体制竞争十分激烈,为失败者提供的机会少之又少。为了获得成功,许多伊朗年轻人在高中阶段刻苦学习,通常梦想着去国外闯荡一番。1979革命之后,伊朗一直面临着持续的人才流失。 A couple of generations ago, it was quite uncommon for Iranians to leave their native land. During recent times however, an Iranian diaspora of around 4 to 5 million individuals have evolved abroad. One example is the Iranian community in the US. 几代人以前,伊朗人很少离开故土。但是,伊朗人的海外移民近年来已逐渐发展至四、五百万人的规模。美国的伊朗人群体就是其中一例。 According to the US census in 1990, 221 000 persons of Iranian ancestry were at the time residing in the country. Slightly less than a quarter were born in the US from Iranian parents. Almost half of the remainder had resided in the country for less than ten years. 根据美国1990年的人口普查,当时有221,000名伊朗血统的人居住在美国,其中近四分之一出生于美国,双亲都是伊朗人。其余的人中有近一半在美国居住未满十年。 Still, the group was thriving economically. The poverty level amongst Iranians was only marginally higher than the national average. In fact, the median house income of Iranians was 22 percent higher than the national average. One explanation is that some Iranians migrants had brought wealth with them. 然而,这个群体在经济上欣欣向荣。在美伊朗人的贫困率仅略高于全美平均水平。但事实上,他们的家庭收入中位数却比全美平均水平高出22%。有一种解释是一些伊朗移民将他们的财富也转移到了国外。 Likely more important is their stock of knowledge capital. Amongst Iranians over 25 years of age, fully 26 percent had graduate degree or higher. At the time, this was almost four times the US average. 但更重要的可能是他们自身的知识资本储备。25岁以上的伊朗人中,足足有26%的人获得了硕士以上学位。在那时,这几乎是美国平均水平的四倍。 According to the 2013 American Community Survey, the number of Iranians had grown to some 460 000 (the true population might be considerably higher, since many do not identify themselves as “Iranian” on the census). The median household income of Iranians was $64 752, compared to a national average of $52 250. 根据2013年的美国社区调查,在美伊朗人的数量已增长至460,000人左右(真实数据可能还会高很多,因为很多人在普查中没把自己当做“伊朗人”)。伊朗人的家庭收入中位数为64,752美元,而全美平均水平为52,250美元。 Adjusting for household size, the per capita income of Iranians was $43 334, far higher than the national average of $28 155. The share with bachelor’s degree or higher was 61.9 percent amongst Iranians, compared to 28.8 percent for the average American. 根据家庭规模对数据进行调整后,伊朗人的人均收入为43,334美元,远远高于全美人均收入28,155美元。伊朗人中拥有学士学位以上学历的人占61.9%,而美国平均水平为28.8%。 Culture plays a key part in the Iranian success story. To begin with, knowledge is treasured. This is apparent in the Persian language, where occupation-bound terms of address are common. Someone who is a doctor, a “mohandes” (engineer) or “vakil” (lawyer) is addressed as such. 文化在伊朗式成功故事中起到了关键作用。首先,知识受到重视。这在波斯语中就表现的十分明显。与职业相关的称呼非常普遍,医生、工程师或者律师就被人以职业相称。 Having a good degree is not merely a source of pride for the individual, but for the family as a whole. The culture prevalent amongst the Iranian diaspora also emphasizes individual achievement, wealth accumulation and business-ownership. 拥有高学历是个人乃至整个家庭骄傲的资本。伊朗移民群体中的主流文化还强调个人成就、财富积累和生意家业。 Iran itself still lacks the education system, market based economy and high levels of trust needed for these cultural attributed to bear fruit. Western countries as the US however do. By adapting to western society, Iranians also leave behind some cultural traits: such as low trust for strangers and old-fashioned gender roles. 伊朗国内仍旧缺乏使得这些文化因素能够结出果实的良好的教育体制、市场经济和高度信任感。但美国等西方国家就具备这些条件。在融入西方社会的过程中,伊朗人也摒弃了一些文化特质,诸如对陌生人的不信任感和传统的性别角色观念。 Mehdi Bozorgmehr and Daniel Douglas conclude that the children of Iranian immigrants in the US have a more balanced achievement across gender lines: “in terms of educational attainment and labor force participation, females have quickly closed the gap with their male counterparts.” Mehdi Bozorgmehr与Daniel Douglas(在两人合著的文章“Success(ion): Second-Generation Iranian Americans.”中)总结认为,美国伊朗移民后裔的成就在性别上更为平衡:“就教育程度与就业而言,女性正在快速缩小与男性竞争者的差距。” The success of Iranians in the US can to some degree be explained by the fact that some of the rich elite fled Iran to New York and Los Angeles. In this regard, Canada differs from the US. Over the period 1978 to 1990 Iranians mainly came as political refugees. Later arrivals include refugees, family immigrants as well as students. 伊朗的部分富有精英阶层逃往纽约与洛杉矶这一事实,可在某种程度上解释伊朗人在美国的成功。就此而言,加拿大的情形与美国不同。1978-1990年间,伊朗人主要以政治难民的身份进入加拿大。随后到来的人则包括难民、亲属移民与学生。 According to the 2006 census, some 121 000 individuals of Iranian origin were at the time residing in Canada. One in six was born in Canada, while the remainders were immigrants. Nearly 30 percent of the immigrants had arrived in Canada during the last five years. This explains why 34 percent of Iranians lived below the low-income cut off before tax in 2006, almost three times the national average. 根据2006年加拿大人口普查,大约有121,000名伊朗裔居住在加拿大,其中六分之一出生于加拿大,其余的则是移民,且近30%是在最近五年内来到加拿大。这解释了为何2006年有34%的伊朗人税前收入在低收入指标以下,这一比例几乎三倍于全国平均水平。 With time however, integration occurs in the Canadian economy. The same census shows that full year working Iranians had merely twelve percent lower median incomes than the average Canadian – a good outcome for a group with many recent arrivals. The situation is quite different in another snowy part of the world: the Nordics. 然而,随着时间推移,加拿大的经济逐渐呈融合之势。该份人口普查报告也同时表明,全年工作的伊朗人收入中位数仅比加拿大平均水平低12%——这对一个新来者众多的群体来说是个不错的结果。但在世界的另一片冰雪地带——北欧,情况却大不相同。 Sweden has received a large influx of migrants from Iran. Today, Iranian immigrants and their children make up nearly one percent of Sweden’s population. As in Canada, the group has a strong educational background. 瑞典已接收了一大批伊朗移民。现在,伊朗移民和他们的下一代已占瑞典人口1%左右。和在加拿大一样,瑞典伊朗移民群体有着优秀的教育背景。 A study has however shown that in 1999, around 15 years after the average Iranian migrated to Sweden, a large segment was still trapped in welfare dependency. Merely a third of Iranian households supported themselves mainly through work at this time. The households were either depending on public support or low incomes from work. 但一项研究表明,在1999年,移民至瑞典平均近15年后,相当一部分伊朗人仍旧仰仗福利救济为生。当时,仅有三分之一的伊朗家庭能通过工作自食其力。伊朗家庭不是依赖公共救济,就是靠着微薄的工资勉强度日。 Another study has calculated the income from work between 1993 and 2000 for those born in Iran. It is shown that this amounted only to 61 percent of the average work income of a native Swede. With time, the situation of Iranians in Sweden has improved. But amongst the first generation, many have not been given the opportunity to fulfill their potential. 另一项研究计算了出生于伊朗的瑞典人口在1993-2000年间的工作收入,其水平仅是瑞典本土人的61%。随着时间推移,伊朗人在瑞典的境况正渐渐变好。但是,在第一代移民中,很多人未能得到机会去发挥他们的潜能。 A similar situation exists in neighboring Norway. A study by Statistics Norway has found that Iranians in Norway have unusually high educational level compared to other immigrant groups. However, fully 41 percent of adult Iranians surveyed responded that they were unemployed and actively seeking work at some point during 2006 – well before the global financial crises. 相似的情况也存在于瑞典的邻国挪威。挪威统计局的一项研究表明,相比于挪威的其他移民群体,伊朗人有着不一般的高教育水平。但是,参与调查的伊朗成年人中有足足41%的人回应说他们在2006年曾处于失业状态,并积极寻找工作——彼时全球经济危机还远未来临。 It is no coincidence that the US and Canada offer greater opportunities for upward social mobility of Iranian migrants. The economic structures in Sweden and Norway – based on strict wage-setting, rigid labor laws, high taxes and generous benefits – makes it more difficult and less rewarding to enter the labor market. 美国和加拿大为伊朗移民提供了更多进入社会上层的机会,这并非巧合。瑞典和挪威的经济结构建立于严格的工资设定、严苛的劳工法律、高赋税和慷慨的社会福利之上,这使得进入劳动力市场变得困难,得到的回报也更少。 Interestingly enough, welfare‑entrapment has not fully eroded the Iranian success story. Most young Iranians in Sweden have grown up supported by welfare handout and/or low work incomes. Yet, no group is as keen on earning a higher education as young Iranians. 不过有趣的是,福利的诱惑并未就此完全打断伊朗人的成功故事。瑞典的大多数伊朗年轻人靠着社会救济或微薄工作收入长大,但没有一个群体像他们那样渴望接受高等教育。 A study has shown that 45 percent of native Swedes have started higher education at the age of 25. This is considerably higher than 37 percent amongst the average immigrants. Iranians are a clear outlier, since 60 percent have begun higher education at the same age. 一项研究显示,45%的瑞典本土人在25岁时已开始接受高等教育,比移民的平均水平37%要高出一截。但伊朗人明显是个异数,有60%的同龄人已开始接受高等教育。 Countries such as Sweden societies have created higher obstacles to labor market inclusion than the more free‑market based Anglo-Saxon societies. For immigrant groups such as Iranians, the effect is greater entrapment in social poverty through welfare-dependency. 相比于自由市场经济成分更多的盎格鲁-撒克逊社会,瑞典式国家为进入劳动市场设置了较高的门槛。这诱使包括伊朗人在内的移民群体因依赖社会福利而深陷社会性贫困。 At the same time, Sweden offers fully publicly supported education to their citizens. Some young Iranians remain in the socially marginalized class that their parents were trapped in. Many more have begun climbing the social ladder through primarily education, but also business ownership and hard work. 同时,瑞典又为其国民提供全公费教育。一些年轻伊朗人和他们的父辈一样,仍陷于社会边缘群体。但更多的人正依靠他们所受的教育、自身的商业成就和勤奋工作努力地沿着社会阶梯向上攀登。 The social reward for becoming a doctor, a “mohandes” or a “vakil” remains strong in the group. Young Iranians are still encouraged to make their parents proud by earning a higher degree or founding a successful business. In Sweden, as well as in Canada and the US, the intermarriage between eastern culture and western institutions creates a route to up-ward social mobility. 在这个群体中,成为医生、工程师或律师可获得高昂的社会奖励。年轻伊朗人仍在被鼓励着去获取高学历或成功创业以为其父母脸上增光。在瑞典,正如在加拿大和美国那样,东方文化与西方制度的混合作用为在社会向上流动提供了一条新路径。 (编辑:辉格@whigzhou) *注:本译文未经原作者授权,本站对原文不持有也不主张任何权利,如果你恰好对原文拥有权益并希望我们移除相关内容,请私信联系,我们会立即作出响应。

——海德沙龙·翻译组,致力于将英文世界的好文章搬进中文世界——



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